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Training the variables of an imported module together with those of the model around it is called fine-tuning. Fine-tuning can result in better quality, but adds new complications. We advise consumers to look into fine-tuning only after exploring simpler quality tweaks.

For Consumers

To enable fine-tuning, instantiate the module with hub.Module(..., trainable=True) to make its variables trainable and import TensorFlow's REGULARIZATION_LOSSES. If the module has multiple graph variants, make sure to pick the one appropriate for training. Usually, that's the one with tags {"train"}.

Choose a training regime that does not ruin the pre-trained weights, for example, a lower learning rate than for training from scratch.

For Publishers

To make fine-tuning easier for consumers, please be mindful of the following:

  • Fine-tuning needs regularization. Your module is exported with the REGULARIZATION_LOSSES collection, which is what puts your choice of tf.layers.dense(..., kernel_regularizer=...) etc. into what the consumer gets from tf.losses.get_regularization_losses(). Prefer this way of defining L1/L2 regularization losses.

  • In the publisher model, avoid defining L1/L2 regularization via the l1_ and l2_regularization_strength parameters of tf.train.FtrlOptimizer, tf.train.ProximalGradientDescentOptimizer, and other proximal optimizers. These are not exported alongside the module, and setting regularization strengths globally may not be appropriate for the consumer. Except for L1 regularization in wide (i.e. sparse linear) or wide & deep models, it should be possible to use individual regularization losses instead.

  • If you use dropout, batch normalization, or similar training techniques, set dropout rate and other hyperparameters to values that make sense across many expected uses.