# tfp.distributions.GaussianProcess

Marginal distribution of a Gaussian process at finitely many points.

Inherits From: `Distribution`

A Gaussian process (GP) is an indexed collection of random variables, any finite collection of which are jointly Gaussian. While this definition applies to finite index sets, it is typically implicit that the index set is infinite; in applications, it is often some finite dimensional real or complex vector space. In such cases, the GP may be thought of as a distribution over (real- or complex-valued) functions defined over the index set.

Just as Gaussian distributions are fully specified by their first and second moments, a Gaussian process can be completely specified by a mean and covariance function. Let `S` denote the index set and `K` the space in which each indexed random variable takes its values (again, often R or C). The mean function is then a map `m: S -> K`, and the covariance function, or kernel, is a positive-definite function `k: (S x S) -> K`. The properties of functions drawn from a GP are entirely dictated (up to translation) by the form of the kernel function.

This `Distribution` represents the marginal joint distribution over function values at a given finite collection of points `[x[1], ..., x[N]]` from the index set `S`. By definition, this marginal distribution is just a multivariate normal distribution, whose mean is given by the vector `[ m(x[1]), ..., m(x[N]) ]` and whose covariance matrix is constructed from pairwise applications of the kernel function to the given inputs:

``````    | k(x[1], x[1])    k(x[1], x[2])  ...  k(x[1], x[N]) |
| k(x[2], x[1])    k(x[2], x[2])  ...  k(x[2], x[N]) |
|      ...              ...                 ...      |
| k(x[N], x[1])    k(x[N], x[2])  ...  k(x[N], x[N]) |
``````

For this to be a valid covariance matrix, it must be symmetric and positive definite; hence the requirement that `k` be a positive definite function (which, by definition, says that the above procedure will yield PD matrices).

We also support the inclusion of zero-mean Gaussian noise in the model, via the `observation_noise_variance` parameter. This augments the generative model to

``````f ~ GP(m, k)
(y[i] | f, x[i]) ~ Normal(f(x[i]), s)
``````

where

• `m` is the mean function
• `k` is the covariance kernel function
• `f` is the function drawn from the GP
• `x[i]` are the index points at which the function is observed
• `y[i]` are the observed values at the index points
• `s` is the scale of the observation noise.

Note that this class represents an unconditional Gaussian process; it does not implement posterior inference conditional on observed function evaluations. This class is useful, for example, if one wishes to combine a GP prior with a non-conjugate likelihood using MCMC to sample from the posterior.

#### Mathematical Details

The probability density function (pdf) is a multivariate normal whose parameters are derived from the GP's properties:

``````pdf(x; index_points, mean_fn, kernel) = exp(-0.5 * y) / Z
K = (kernel.matrix(index_points, index_points) +
observation_noise_variance * eye(N))
y = (x - mean_fn(index_points))^T @ K @ (x - mean_fn(index_points))
Z = (2 * pi)**(.5 * N) |det(K)|**(.5)
``````

where:

• `index_points` are points in the index set over which the GP is defined,
• `mean_fn` is a callable mapping the index set to the GP's mean values,
• `kernel` is `PositiveSemidefiniteKernel`-like and represents the covariance function of the GP,
• `observation_noise_variance` represents (optional) observation noise.
• `eye(N)` is an N-by-N identity matrix.

#### Examples

##### Draw joint samples from a GP prior
``````import numpy as np
import tensorflow.compat.v2 as tf
import tensorflow_probability as tfp

tfd = tfp.distributions
psd_kernels = tfp.math.psd_kernels

num_points = 100
# Index points should be a collection (100, here) of feature vectors. In this
# example, we're using 1-d vectors, so we just need to reshape the output from
# np.linspace, to give a shape of (100, 1).
index_points = np.expand_dims(np.linspace(-1., 1., num_points), -1)

# Define a kernel with default parameters.

gp = tfd.GaussianProcess(kernel, index_points)

samples = gp.sample(10)
# ==> 10 independently drawn, joint samples at `index_points`

noisy_gp = tfd.GaussianProcess(
kernel=kernel,
index_points=index_points,
observation_noise_variance=.05)
noisy_samples = noisy_gp.sample(10)
# ==> 10 independently drawn, noisy joint samples at `index_points`
``````
##### Optimize kernel parameters via maximum marginal likelihood.
``````# Suppose we have some data from a known function. Note the index points in
# general have shape `[b1, ..., bB, f1, ..., fF]` (here we assume `F == 1`),
# so we need to explicitly consume the feature dimensions (just the last one
# here).
f = lambda x: np.sin(10*x[..., 0]) * np.exp(-x[..., 0]**2)
observed_index_points = np.expand_dims(np.random.uniform(-1., 1., 50), -1)
# Squeeze to take the shape from [50, 1] to [50].
observed_values = f(observed_index_points)

# Define a kernel with trainable parameters.
amplitude=tf.Variable(1., dtype=np.float64, name='amplitude'),
length_scale=tf.Variable(1., dtype=np.float64, name='length_scale'))

gp = tfd.GaussianProcess(kernel, observed_index_points)

@tf.function
def optimize():
loss = -gp.log_prob(observed_values)
return loss

for i in range(1000):
neg_log_likelihood = optimize()
if i % 100 == 0:
print("Step {}: NLL = {}".format(i, neg_log_likelihood))
print("Final NLL = {}".format(neg_log_likelihood))
``````

`kernel` `PositiveSemidefiniteKernel`-like instance representing the GP's covariance function.
`index_points` `float` `Tensor` representing finite (batch of) vector(s) of points in the index set over which the GP is defined. Shape has the form `[b1, ..., bB, e, f1, ..., fF]` where `F` is the number of feature dimensions and must equal `kernel.feature_ndims` and `e` is the number (size) of index points in each batch. Ultimately this distribution corresponds to a `e`-dimensional multivariate normal. The batch shape must be broadcastable with `kernel.batch_shape` and any batch dims yielded by `mean_fn`.
`mean_fn` Python `callable` that acts on `index_points` to produce a (batch of) vector(s) of mean values at `index_points`. Takes a `Tensor` of shape `[b1, ..., bB, f1, ..., fF]` and returns a `Tensor` whose shape is broadcastable with `[b1, ..., bB]`. Default value: `None` implies constant zero function.
`observation_noise_variance` `float` `Tensor` representing (batch of) scalar variance(s) of the noise in the Normal likelihood distribution of the model. If batched, the batch shape must be broadcastable with the shapes of all other batched parameters (`kernel.batch_shape`, `index_points`, etc.). Default value: `0.`
`marginal_fn` A Python callable that takes a location, covariance matrix, optional `validate_args`, `allow_nan_stats` and `name` arguments, and returns a multivariate normal subclass of `tfd.Distribution`. At most one of `cholesky_fn` and `marginal_fn` should be set. Default value: `None`, in which case a Cholesky-factorizing function is created using `make_cholesky_factored_marginal_fn` and the `cholesky_fn` argument.
`cholesky_fn` Callable which takes a single (batch) matrix argument and returns a Cholesky-like lower triangular factor. Default value: `None`, in which case `make_cholesky_with_jitter_fn` is used with the `jitter` parameter. At most one of `cholesky_fn` and `marginal_fn` should be set.
`jitter` `float` scalar `Tensor` added to the diagonal of the covariance matrix to ensure positive definiteness of the covariance matrix, when `marginal_fn` and `cholesky_fn` is None. This argument is ignored if `cholesky_fn` is set. Default value: `1e-6`.
`always_yield_multivariate_normal` If `False` (the default), we produce a scalar `Normal` distribution when the number of `index_points` is statically known to be `1`. If `True`, we avoid this behavior, ensuring that the event shape will retain the `1` from `index_points`.
`validate_args` Python `bool`, default `False`. When `True` distribution parameters are checked for validity despite possibly degrading runtime performance. When `False` invalid inputs may silently render incorrect outputs. Default value: `False`.
`allow_nan_stats` Python `bool`, default `True`. When `True`, statistics (e.g., mean, mode, variance) use the value "`NaN`" to indicate the result is undefined. When `False`, an exception is raised if one or more of the statistic's batch members are undefined. Default value: `False`.
`parameters` For subclasses, a dict of constructor arguments.
`name` Python `str` name prefixed to Ops created by this class. Default value: "GaussianProcess".
`_check_marginal_cholesky_fn` Internal parameter -- do not use.

`ValueError` if `mean_fn` is not `None` and is not callable.

`allow_nan_stats` Python `bool` describing behavior when a stat is undefined.

Stats return +/- infinity when it makes sense. E.g., the variance of a Cauchy distribution is infinity. However, sometimes the statistic is undefined, e.g., if a distribution's pdf does not achieve a maximum within the support of the distribution, the mode is undefined. If the mean is undefined, then by definition the variance is undefined. E.g. the mean for Student's T for df = 1 is undefined (no clear way to say it is either + or - infinity), so the variance = E[(X - mean)**2] is also undefined.

`batch_shape` Shape of a single sample from a single event index as a `TensorShape`.

May be partially defined or unknown.

The batch dimensions are indexes into independent, non-identical parameterizations of this distribution.

`cholesky_fn`

`dtype` The `DType` of `Tensor`s handled by this `Distribution`.
`event_shape` Shape of a single sample from a single batch as a `TensorShape`.

May be partially defined or unknown.

`experimental_shard_axis_names` The list or structure of lists of active shard axis names.
`index_points`

`jitter` DEPRECATED FUNCTION

`kernel`

`marginal_fn`

`mean_fn`

`name` Name prepended to all ops created by this `Distribution`.
`name_scope` Returns a `tf.name_scope` instance for this class.
`non_trainable_variables` Sequence of non-trainable variables owned by this module and its submodules.

`observation_noise_variance`

`parameters` Dictionary of parameters used to instantiate this `Distribution`.
`reparameterization_type` Describes how samples from the distribution are reparameterized.

Currently this is one of the static instances `tfd.FULLY_REPARAMETERIZED` or `tfd.NOT_REPARAMETERIZED`.

`submodules` Sequence of all sub-modules.

Submodules are modules which are properties of this module, or found as properties of modules which are properties of this module (and so on).

````a = tf.Module()`
`b = tf.Module()`
`c = tf.Module()`
`a.b = b`
`b.c = c`
`list(a.submodules) == [b, c]`
`True`
`list(b.submodules) == [c]`
`True`
`list(c.submodules) == []`
`True`
```

`trainable_variables` Sequence of trainable variables owned by this module and its submodules.

`validate_args` Python `bool` indicating possibly expensive checks are enabled.
`variables` Sequence of variables owned by this module and its submodules.

## Methods

### `batch_shape_tensor`

View source

Shape of a single sample from a single event index as a 1-D `Tensor`.

The batch dimensions are indexes into independent, non-identical parameterizations of this distribution.

Args
`name` name to give to the op

Returns
`batch_shape` `Tensor`.

### `cdf`

View source

Cumulative distribution function.

Given random variable `X`, the cumulative distribution function `cdf` is:

``````cdf(x) := P[X <= x]
``````

Args
`value` `float` or `double` `Tensor`.
`name` Python `str` prepended to names of ops created by this function.
`**kwargs` Named arguments forwarded to subclass implementation.

Returns
`cdf` a `Tensor` of shape `sample_shape(x) + self.batch_shape` with values of type `self.dtype`.

### `copy`

View source

Creates a deep copy of the distribution.

Args
`**override_parameters_kwargs` String/value dictionary of initialization arguments to override with new values.

Returns
`distribution` A new instance of `type(self)` initialized from the union of self.parameters and override_parameters_kwargs, i.e., `dict(self.parameters, **override_parameters_kwargs)`.

### `covariance`

View source

Covariance.

Covariance is (possibly) defined only for non-scalar-event distributions.

For example, for a length-`k`, vector-valued distribution, it is calculated as,

``````Cov[i, j] = Covariance(X_i, X_j) = E[(X_i - E[X_i]) (X_j - E[X_j])]
``````

where `Cov` is a (batch of) `k x k` matrix, `0 <= (i, j) < k`, and `E` denotes expectation.

Alternatively, for non-vector, multivariate distributions (e.g., matrix-valued, Wishart), `Covariance` shall return a (batch of) matrices under some vectorization of the events, i.e.,

``````Cov[i, j] = Covariance(Vec(X)_i, Vec(X)_j) = [as above]
``````

where `Cov` is a (batch of) `k' x k'` matrices, `0 <= (i, j) < k' = reduce_prod(event_shape)`, and `Vec` is some function mapping indices of this distribution's event dimensions to indices of a length-`k'` vector.

Args
`name` Python `str` prepended to names of ops created by this function.
`**kwargs` Named arguments forwarded to subclass implementation.

Returns
`covariance` Floating-point `Tensor` with shape `[B1, ..., Bn, k', k']` where the first `n` dimensions are batch coordinates and `k' = reduce_prod(self.event_shape)`.

### `cross_entropy`

View source

Computes the (Shannon) cross entropy.

Denote this distribution (`self`) by `P` and the `other` distribution by `Q`. Assuming `P, Q` are absolutely continuous with respect to one another and permit densities `p(x) dr(x)` and `q(x) dr(x)`, (Shannon) cross entropy is defined as:

``````H[P, Q] = E_p[-log q(X)] = -int_F p(x) log q(x) dr(x)
``````

where `F` denotes the support of the random variable `X ~ P`.

`other` types with built-in registrations: `MultivariateNormalDiag`, `MultivariateNormalDiagPlusLowRank`, `MultivariateNormalFullCovariance`, `MultivariateNormalLinearOperator`, `MultivariateNormalTriL`, `Normal`

Args
`other` `tfp.distributions.Distribution` instance.
`name` Python `str` prepended to names of ops created by this function.

Returns
`cross_entropy` `self.dtype` `Tensor` with shape `[B1, ..., Bn]` representing `n` different calculations of (Shannon) cross entropy.

### `entropy`

View source

Shannon entropy in nats.

### `event_shape_tensor`

View source

Shape of a single sample from a single batch as a 1-D int32 `Tensor`.

Args
`name` name to give to the op

Returns
`event_shape` `Tensor`.

### `experimental_default_event_space_bijector`

View source

Bijector mapping the reals (R**n) to the event space of the distribution.

Distributions with continuous support may implement `_default_event_space_bijector` which returns a subclass of `tfp.bijectors.Bijector` that maps R**n to the distribution's event space. For example, the default bijector for the `Beta` distribution is `tfp.bijectors.Sigmoid()`, which maps the real line to `[0, 1]`, the support of the `Beta` distribution. The default bijector for the `CholeskyLKJ` distribution is `tfp.bijectors.CorrelationCholesky`, which maps R^(k * (k-1) // 2) to the submanifold of k x k lower triangular matrices with ones along the diagonal.

The purpose of `experimental_default_event_space_bijector` is to enable gradient descent in an unconstrained space for Variational Inference and Hamiltonian Monte Carlo methods. Some effort has been made to choose bijectors such that the tails of the distribution in the unconstrained space are between Gaussian and Exponential.

For distributions with discrete event space, or for which TFP currently lacks a suitable bijector, this function returns `None`.

Args
`*args` Passed to implementation `_default_event_space_bijector`.
`**kwargs` Passed to implementation `_default_event_space_bijector`.

Returns
`event_space_bijector` `Bijector` instance or `None`.

### `experimental_fit`

View source

Instantiates a distribution that maximizes the likelihood of `x`.

Args
`value` a `Tensor` valid sample from this distribution family.
`sample_ndims` Positive `int` Tensor number of leftmost dimensions of `value` that index i.i.d. samples. Default value: `1`.
`validate_args` Python `bool`, default `False`. When `True`, distribution parameters are checked for validity despite possibly degrading runtime performance. When `False`, invalid inputs may silently render incorrect outputs. Default value: `False`.
`**init_kwargs` Additional keyword arguments passed through to `cls.__init__`. These take precedence in case of collision with the fitted parameters; for example, `tfd.Normal.experimental_fit([1., 1.], scale=20.)` returns a Normal distribution with `scale=20.` rather than the maximum likelihood parameter `scale=0.`.

Returns
`maximum_likelihood_instance` instance of `cls` with parameters that maximize the likelihood of `value`.

### `experimental_local_measure`

View source

Returns a log probability density together with a `TangentSpace`.

A `TangentSpace` allows us to calculate the correct push-forward density when we apply a transformation to a `Distribution` on a strict submanifold of R^n (typically via a `Bijector` in the `TransformedDistribution` subclass). The density correction uses the basis of the tangent space.

Args
`value` `float` or `double` `Tensor`.
`backward_compat` `bool` specifying whether to fall back to returning `FullSpace` as the tangent space, and representing R^n with the standard basis.
`**kwargs` Named arguments forwarded to subclass implementation.

Returns
`log_prob` a `Tensor` representing the log probability density, of shape `sample_shape(x) + self.batch_shape` with values of type `self.dtype`.
`tangent_space` a `TangentSpace` object (by default `FullSpace`) representing the tangent space to the manifold at `value`.

Raises
UnspecifiedTangentSpaceError if `backward_compat` is False and the `_experimental_tangent_space` attribute has not been defined.

### `experimental_sample_and_log_prob`

View source

Samples from this distribution and returns the log density of the sample.

The default implementation simply calls `sample` and `log_prob`:

``````def _sample_and_log_prob(self, sample_shape, seed, **kwargs):
x = self.sample(sample_shape=sample_shape, seed=seed, **kwargs)
return x, self.log_prob(x, **kwargs)
``````

However, some subclasses may provide more efficient and/or numerically stable implementations.

Args
`sample_shape` integer `Tensor` desired shape of samples to draw. Default value: `()`.
`seed` PRNG seed; see `tfp.random.sanitize_seed` for details. Default value: `None`.
`name` name to give to the op. Default value: `'sample_and_log_prob'`.
`**kwargs` Named arguments forwarded to subclass implementation.

Returns
`samples` a `Tensor`, or structure of `Tensor`s, with prepended dimensions `sample_shape`.
`log_prob` a `Tensor` of shape `sample_shape(x) + self.batch_shape` with values of type `self.dtype`.

### `get_marginal_distribution`

View source

Compute the marginal of this GP over function values at `index_points`.

Args
`index_points` `float` `Tensor` representing finite (batch of) vector(s) of points in the index set over which the GP is defined. Shape has the form `[b1, ..., bB, e, f1, ..., fF]` where `F` is the number of feature dimensions and must equal `kernel.feature_ndims` and `e` is the number (size) of index points in each batch. Ultimately this distribution corresponds to a `e`-dimensional multivariate normal. The batch shape must be broadcastable with `kernel.batch_shape` and any batch dims yielded by `mean_fn`.

Returns
`marginal` a `Normal` or `MultivariateNormalLinearOperator` distribution, according to whether `index_points` consists of one or many index points, respectively.

### `is_scalar_batch`

View source

Indicates that `batch_shape == []`.

Args
`name` Python `str` prepended to names of ops created by this function.

Returns
`is_scalar_batch` `bool` scalar `Tensor`.

### `is_scalar_event`

View source

Indicates that `event_shape == []`.

Args
`name` Python `str` prepended to names of ops created by this function.

Returns
`is_scalar_event` `bool` scalar `Tensor`.

### `kl_divergence`

View source

Computes the Kullback--Leibler divergence.

Denote this distribution (`self`) by `p` and the `other` distribution by `q`. Assuming `p, q` are absolutely continuous with respect to reference measure `r`, the KL divergence is defined as:

``````KL[p, q] = E_p[log(p(X)/q(X))]
= -int_F p(x) log q(x) dr(x) + int_F p(x) log p(x) dr(x)
= H[p, q] - H[p]
``````

where `F` denotes the support of the random variable `X ~ p`, `H[., .]` denotes (Shannon) cross entropy, and `H[.]` denotes (Shannon) entropy.

`other` types with built-in registrations: `MultivariateNormalDiag`, `MultivariateNormalDiagPlusLowRank`, `MultivariateNormalFullCovariance`, `MultivariateNormalLinearOperator`, `MultivariateNormalTriL`, `Normal`

Args
`other` `tfp.distributions.Distribution` instance.
`name` Python `str` prepended to names of ops created by this function.

Returns
`kl_divergence` `self.dtype` `Tensor` with shape `[B1, ..., Bn]` representing `n` different calculations of the Kullback-Leibler divergence.

### `log_cdf`

View source

Log cumulative distribution function.

Given random variable `X`, the cumulative distribution function `cdf` is:

``````log_cdf(x) := Log[ P[X <= x] ]
``````

Often, a numerical approximation can be used for `log_cdf(x)` that yields a more accurate answer than simply taking the logarithm of the `cdf` when `x << -1`.

Args
`value` `float` or `double` `Tensor`.
`name` Python `str` prepended to names of ops created by this function.
`**kwargs` Named arguments forwarded to subclass implementation.

Returns
`logcdf` a `Tensor` of shape `sample_shape(x) + self.batch_shape` with values of type `self.dtype`.

### `log_prob`

View source

Log probability density/mass function.

Additional documentation from `GaussianProcess`:

##### `kwargs`:
• `index_points`: optional `float` `Tensor` representing a finite (batch of) of points in the index set over which this GP is defined. The shape has the form `[b1, ..., bB, e, f1, ..., fF]` where `F` is the number of feature dimensions and must equal `self.kernel.feature_ndims` and `e` is the number of index points in each batch. Ultimately, this distribution corresponds to an `e`-dimensional multivariate normal. The batch shape must be broadcastable with `kernel.batch_shape` and any batch dims yielded by `mean_fn`. If not specified, `self.index_points` is used. Default value: `None`.
• `is_missing`: optional `bool` `Tensor` of shape `[..., e]`, where `e` is the number of index points in each batch. Represents a batch of Boolean masks. When `is_missing` is not `None`, the returned log-prob is for the marginal distribution, in which all dimensions for which `is_missing` is `True` have been marginalized out. The batch dimensions of `is_missing` must broadcast with the sample and batch dimensions of `value` and of this `Distribution`. Default value: `None`.

Args
`value` `float` or `double` `Tensor`.
`name` Python `str` prepended to names of ops created by this function.
`**kwargs` Named arguments forwarded to subclass implementation.

Returns
`log_prob` a `Tensor` of shape `sample_shape(x) + self.batch_shape` with values of type `self.dtype`.

### `log_survival_function`

View source

Log survival function.

Given random variable `X`, the survival function is defined:

``````log_survival_function(x) = Log[ P[X > x] ]
= Log[ 1 - P[X <= x] ]
= Log[ 1 - cdf(x) ]
``````

Typically, different numerical approximations can be used for the log survival function, which are more accurate than `1 - cdf(x)` when `x >> 1`.

Args
`value` `float` or `double` `Tensor`.
`name` Python `str` prepended to names of ops created by this function.
`**kwargs` Named arguments forwarded to subclass implementation.

Returns
`Tensor` of shape `sample_shape(x) + self.batch_shape` with values of type `self.dtype`.

View source

Mean.

View source

Mode.

### `param_shapes`

View source

Shapes of parameters given the desired shape of a call to `sample()`. (deprecated)

This is a class method that describes what key/value arguments are required to instantiate the given `Distribution` so that a particular shape is returned for that instance's call to `sample()`.

Subclasses should override class method `_param_shapes`.

Args
`sample_shape` `Tensor` or python list/tuple. Desired shape of a call to `sample()`.
`name` name to prepend ops with.

Returns
`dict` of parameter name to `Tensor` shapes.

### `param_static_shapes`

View source

param_shapes with static (i.e. `TensorShape`) shapes. (deprecated)

This is a class method that describes what key/value arguments are required to instantiate the given `Distribution` so that a particular shape is returned for that instance's call to `sample()`. Assumes that the sample's shape is known statically.

Subclasses should override class method `_param_shapes` to return constant-valued tensors when constant values are fed.

Args
`sample_shape` `TensorShape` or python list/tuple. Desired shape of a call to `sample()`.

Returns
`dict` of parameter name to `TensorShape`.

Raises
`ValueError` if `sample_shape` is a `TensorShape` and is not fully defined.

### `parameter_properties`

View source

Returns a dict mapping constructor arg names to property annotations.

This dict should include an entry for each of the distribution's `Tensor`-valued constructor arguments.

Distribution subclasses are not required to implement `_parameter_properties`, so this method may raise `NotImplementedError`. Providing a `_parameter_properties` implementation enables several advanced features, including:

• Distribution batch slicing (`sliced_distribution = distribution[i:j]`).
• Automatic inference of `_batch_shape` and `_batch_shape_tensor`, which must otherwise be computed explicitly.
• Automatic instantiation of the distribution within TFP's internal property tests.
• Automatic construction of 'trainable' instances of the distribution using appropriate bijectors to avoid violating parameter constraints. This enables the distribution family to be used easily as a surrogate posterior in variational inference.

In the future, parameter property annotations may enable additional functionality; for example, returning Distribution instances from `tf.vectorized_map`.

Args
`dtype` Optional float `dtype` to assume for continuous-valued parameters. Some constraining bijectors require advance knowledge of the dtype because certain constants (e.g., `tfb.Softplus.low`) must be instantiated with the same dtype as the values to be transformed.
`num_classes` Optional `int` `Tensor` number of classes to assume when inferring the shape of parameters for categorical-like distributions. Otherwise ignored.

Returns
`parameter_properties` A `str ->`tfp.python.internal.parameter_properties.ParameterProperties`dict mapping constructor argument names to`ParameterProperties` instances.

Raises
`NotImplementedError` if the distribution class does not implement `_parameter_properties`.

### `posterior_predictive`

View source

Return the posterior predictive distribution associated with this distribution.

Returns the posterior predictive distribution `p(Y' | X, Y, X')` where:

• `X'` is `predictive_index_points`
• `X` is `self.index_points`.
• `Y` is `observations`.

This is equivalent to using the `GaussianProcessRegressionModel.precompute_regression_model` method.

Args
`observations` `float` `Tensor` representing collection, or batch of collections, of observations corresponding to `self.index_points`. Shape has the form `[b1, ..., bB, e]`, which must be broadcastable with the batch and example shapes of `self.index_points`. The batch shape `[b1, ..., bB]` must be broadcastable with the shapes of all other batched parameters
`predictive_index_points` `float` `Tensor` representing finite collection, or batch of collections, of points in the index set over which the GP is defined. Shape has the form `[b1, ..., bB, e, f1, ..., fF]` where `F` is the number of feature dimensions and must equal `kernel.feature_ndims` and `e` is the number (size) of predictive index points in each batch. The batch shape must be broadcastable with this distributions `batch_shape`. Default value: `None`.
`**kwargs` Any other keyword arguments to pass / override.

Returns
`gprm` An instance of `Distribution` that represents the posterior predictive.

### `prob`

View source

Probability density/mass function.

Args
`value` `float` or `double` `Tensor`.
`name` Python `str` prepended to names of ops created by this function.
`**kwargs` Named arguments forwarded to subclass implementation.

Returns
`prob` a `Tensor` of shape `sample_shape(x) + self.batch_shape` with values of type `self.dtype`.

### `quantile`

View source

Quantile function. Aka 'inverse cdf' or 'percent point function'.

Given random variable `X` and `p in [0, 1]`, the `quantile` is:

``````quantile(p) := x such that P[X <= x] == p
``````

Args
`value` `float` or `double` `Tensor`.
`name` Python `str` prepended to names of ops created by this function.
`**kwargs` Named arguments forwarded to subclass implementation.

Returns
`quantile` a `Tensor` of shape `sample_shape(x) + self.batch_shape` with values of type `self.dtype`.

### `sample`

View source

Generate samples of the specified shape.

Note that a call to `sample()` without arguments will generate a single sample.

Args
`sample_shape` 0D or 1D `int32` `Tensor`. Shape of the generated samples.
`seed` PRNG seed; see `tfp.random.sanitize_seed` for details.
`name` name to give to the op.
`**kwargs` Named arguments forwarded to subclass implementation.

Returns
`samples` a `Tensor` with prepended dimensions `sample_shape`.

### `stddev`

View source

Standard deviation.

Standard deviation is defined as,

``````stddev = E[(X - E[X])**2]**0.5
``````

where `X` is the random variable associated with this distribution, `E` denotes expectation, and `stddev.shape = batch_shape + event_shape`.

Args
`name` Python `str` prepended to names of ops created by this function.
`**kwargs` Named arguments forwarded to subclass implementation.

Returns
`stddev` Floating-point `Tensor` with shape identical to `batch_shape + event_shape`, i.e., the same shape as `self.mean()`.

### `survival_function`

View source

Survival function.

Given random variable `X`, the survival function is defined:

``````survival_function(x) = P[X > x]
= 1 - P[X <= x]
= 1 - cdf(x).
``````

Args
`value` `float` or `double` `Tensor`.
`name` Python `str` prepended to names of ops created by this function.
`**kwargs` Named arguments forwarded to subclass implementation.

Returns
`Tensor` of shape `sample_shape(x) + self.batch_shape` with values of type `self.dtype`.

### `unnormalized_log_prob`

View source

Potentially unnormalized log probability density/mass function.

This function is similar to `log_prob`, but does not require that the return value be normalized. (Normalization here refers to the total integral of probability being one, as it should be by definition for any probability distribution.) This is useful, for example, for distributions where the normalization constant is difficult or expensive to compute. By default, this simply calls `log_prob`.

Args
`value` `float` or `double` `Tensor`.
`name` Python `str` prepended to names of ops created by this function.
`**kwargs` Named arguments forwarded to subclass implementation.

Returns
`unnormalized_log_prob` a `Tensor` of shape `sample_shape(x) + self.batch_shape` with values of type `self.dtype`.

### `variance`

View source

Variance.

Variance is defined as,

``````Var = E[(X - E[X])**2]
``````

where `X` is the random variable associated with this distribution, `E` denotes expectation, and `Var.shape = batch_shape + event_shape`.

Args
`name` Python `str` prepended to names of ops created by this function.
`**kwargs` Named arguments forwarded to subclass implementation.

Returns
`variance` Floating-point `Tensor` with shape identical to `batch_shape + event_shape`, i.e., the same shape as `self.mean()`.

### `with_name_scope`

Decorator to automatically enter the module name scope.

````class MyModule(tf.Module):`
`  @tf.Module.with_name_scope`
`  def __call__(self, x):`
`    if not hasattr(self, 'w'):`
`      self.w = tf.Variable(tf.random.normal([x.shape[1], 3]))`
`    return tf.matmul(x, self.w)`
```

Using the above module would produce `tf.Variable`s and `tf.Tensor`s whose names included the module name:

````mod = MyModule()`
`mod(tf.ones([1, 2]))`
`<tf.Tensor: shape=(1, 3), dtype=float32, numpy=..., dtype=float32)>`
`mod.w`
`<tf.Variable 'my_module/Variable:0' shape=(2, 3) dtype=float32,`
`numpy=..., dtype=float32)>`
```

Args
`method` The method to wrap.

Returns
The original method wrapped such that it enters the module's name scope.

### `__getitem__`

View source

Slices the batch axes of this distribution, returning a new instance.

``````b = tfd.Bernoulli(logits=tf.zeros([3, 5, 7, 9]))
b.batch_shape  # => [3, 5, 7, 9]
b2 = b[:, tf.newaxis, ..., -2:, 1::2]
b2.batch_shape  # => [3, 1, 5, 2, 4]

x = tf.random.normal([5, 3, 2, 2])
cov = tf.matmul(x, x, transpose_b=True)
chol = tf.linalg.cholesky(cov)
loc = tf.random.normal([4, 1, 3, 1])
mvn = tfd.MultivariateNormalTriL(loc, chol)
mvn.batch_shape  # => [4, 5, 3]
mvn.event_shape  # => [2]
mvn2 = mvn[:, 3:, ..., ::-1, tf.newaxis]
mvn2.batch_shape  # => [4, 2, 3, 1]
mvn2.event_shape  # => [2]
``````

Args
`slices` slices from the [] operator

Returns
`dist` A new `tfd.Distribution` instance with sliced parameters.

View source

[]
[]