Using text and neural network features

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Welcome to the Intermediate Colab for TensorFlow Decision Forests (TF-DF). In this colab, you will learn about some more advanced capabilities of TF-DF, including how to deal with natural language features.

This colab assumes you are familiar with the concepts presented the Beginner colab, notably about the installation about TF-DF.

In this colab, you will:

  1. Train a Random Forest that consumes text features natively as categorical sets.

  2. Train a Random Forest that consumes text features using a TensorFlow Hub module. In this setting (transfer learning), the module is already pre-trained on a large text corpus.

  3. Train a Gradient Boosted Decision Trees (GBDT) and a Neural Network together. The GBDT will consume the output of the Neural Network.


# Install TensorFlow Dececision Forests
pip install tensorflow_decision_forests

Wurlitzer is needed to display the detailed training logs in Colabs (when using verbose=2 in the model constructor).

pip install wurlitzer

Import the necessary libraries.

import os
# Keep using Keras 2
os.environ['TF_USE_LEGACY_KERAS'] = '1'

import tensorflow_decision_forests as tfdf

import numpy as np
import pandas as pd
import tensorflow as tf
import tf_keras
import math

The hidden code cell limits the output height in colab.

Use raw text as features

TF-DF can consume categorical-set features natively. Categorical-sets represent text features as bags of words (or n-grams).

For example: "The little blue dog"{"the", "little", "blue", "dog"}

In this example, you'll will train a Random Forest on the Stanford Sentiment Treebank (SST) dataset. The objective of this dataset is to classify sentences as carrying a positive or negative sentiment. You'll will use the binary classification version of the dataset curated in TensorFlow Datasets.

# Install the TensorFlow Datasets package
pip install tensorflow-datasets -U --quiet
# Load the dataset
import tensorflow_datasets as tfds
all_ds = tfds.load("glue/sst2")

# Display the first 3 examples of the test fold.
for example in all_ds["test"].take(3):
  print({attr_name: attr_tensor.numpy() for attr_name, attr_tensor in example.items()})
{'idx': 163, 'label': -1, 'sentence': b'not even the hanson brothers can save it'}
{'idx': 131, 'label': -1, 'sentence': b'strong setup and ambitious goals fade as the film descends into unsophisticated scare tactics and b-film thuggery .'}
{'idx': 1579, 'label': -1, 'sentence': b'too timid to bring a sense of closure to an ugly chapter of the twentieth century .'}
2024-04-20 11:17:31.940774: W tensorflow/core/kernels/data/] The calling iterator did not fully read the dataset being cached. In order to avoid unexpected truncation of the dataset, the partially cached contents of the dataset  will be discarded. This can happen if you have an input pipeline similar to `dataset.cache().take(k).repeat()`. You should use `dataset.take(k).cache().repeat()` instead.
2024-04-20 11:17:31.946131: W tensorflow/core/framework/] Local rendezvous is aborting with status: OUT_OF_RANGE: End of sequence

The dataset is modified as follows:

  1. The raw labels are integers in {-1, 1}, but the learning algorithm expects positive integer labels e.g. {0, 1}. Therefore, the labels are transformed as follows: new_labels = (original_labels + 1) / 2.
  2. A batch-size of 64 is applied to make reading the dataset more efficient.
  3. The sentence attribute needs to be tokenized, i.e. "hello world" -> ["hello", "world"].

Details: Some decision forest learning algorithms do not need a validation dataset (e.g. Random Forests) while others do (e.g. Gradient Boosted Trees in some cases). Since each learning algorithm under TF-DF can use validation data differently, TF-DF handles train/validation splits internally. As a result, when you have a training and validation sets, they can always be concatenated as input to the learning algorithm.

def prepare_dataset(example):
  label = (example["label"] + 1) // 2
  return {"sentence" : tf.strings.split(example["sentence"])}, label

train_ds = all_ds["train"].batch(100).map(prepare_dataset)
test_ds = all_ds["validation"].batch(100).map(prepare_dataset)

Finally, train and evaluate the model as usual. TF-DF automatically detects multi-valued categorical features as categorical-set.

%set_cell_height 300

# Specify the model.
model_1 = tfdf.keras.RandomForestModel(num_trees=30, verbose=2)

# Train the model.
<IPython.core.display.Javascript object>
Warning: The `num_threads` constructor argument is not set and the number of CPU is os.cpu_count()=32 > 32. Setting num_threads to 32. Set num_threads manually to use more than 32 cpus.
WARNING:absl:The `num_threads` constructor argument is not set and the number of CPU is os.cpu_count()=32 > 32. Setting num_threads to 32. Set num_threads manually to use more than 32 cpus.
Use /tmpfs/tmp/tmpx28adgyq as temporary training directory
Reading training dataset...
Training tensor examples:
Features: {'sentence': tf.RaggedTensor(values=Tensor("data:0", shape=(None,), dtype=string), row_splits=Tensor("data_1:0", shape=(None,), dtype=int64))}
Label: Tensor("data_2:0", shape=(None,), dtype=int64)
Weights: None
Normalized tensor features:
 {'sentence': SemanticTensor(semantic=<Semantic.CATEGORICAL_SET: 4>, tensor=tf.RaggedTensor(values=Tensor("data:0", shape=(None,), dtype=string), row_splits=Tensor("data_1:0", shape=(None,), dtype=int64)))}
Training dataset read in 0:00:04.709443. Found 67349 examples.
Training model...
Standard output detected as not visible to the user e.g. running in a notebook. Creating a training log redirection. If training gets stuck, try calling tfdf.keras.set_training_logs_redirection(False).
[INFO 24-04-20 11:17:36.8175 UTC] Start Yggdrasil model training
[INFO 24-04-20 11:17:36.8176 UTC] Collect training examples
[INFO 24-04-20 11:17:36.8176 UTC] Dataspec guide:
column_guides {
  column_name_pattern: "^__LABEL$"
  categorial {
    min_vocab_frequency: 0
    max_vocab_count: -1
default_column_guide {
  categorial {
    max_vocab_count: 2000
  discretized_numerical {
    maximum_num_bins: 255
ignore_columns_without_guides: false
detect_numerical_as_discretized_numerical: false

[INFO 24-04-20 11:17:36.8179 UTC] Number of batches: 674
[INFO 24-04-20 11:17:36.8180 UTC] Number of examples: 67349
[INFO 24-04-20 11:17:36.8602 UTC] 12816 item(s) have been pruned (i.e. they are considered out of dictionary) for the column sentence (2000 item(s) left) because min_value_count=5 and max_number_of_unique_values=2000
[INFO 24-04-20 11:17:36.9136 UTC] Training dataset:
Number of records: 67349
Number of columns: 2

Number of columns by type:
    CATEGORICAL_SET: 1 (50%)
    CATEGORICAL: 1 (50%)


    1: "sentence" CATEGORICAL_SET has-dict vocab-size:2001 num-oods:10187 (15.1257%) most-frequent:"the" 27205 (40.3941%)

    0: "__LABEL" CATEGORICAL integerized vocab-size:3 no-ood-item

    nas: Number of non-available (i.e. missing) values.
    ood: Out of dictionary.
    manually-defined: Attribute whose type is manually defined by the user, i.e., the type was not automatically inferred.
    tokenized: The attribute value is obtained through tokenization.
    has-dict: The attribute is attached to a string dictionary e.g. a categorical attribute stored as a string.
    vocab-size: Number of unique values.

[INFO 24-04-20 11:17:36.9137 UTC] Configure learner
[INFO 24-04-20 11:17:36.9139 UTC] Training config:
learner: "RANDOM_FOREST"
features: "^sentence$"
label: "^__LABEL$"
random_seed: 123456
metadata {
  framework: "TF Keras"
pure_serving_model: false
[yggdrasil_decision_forests.model.random_forest.proto.random_forest_config] {
  num_trees: 30
  decision_tree {
    max_depth: 16
    min_examples: 5
    in_split_min_examples_check: true
    keep_non_leaf_label_distribution: true
    num_candidate_attributes: 0
    missing_value_policy: GLOBAL_IMPUTATION
    allow_na_conditions: false
    categorical_set_greedy_forward {
      sampling: 0.1
      max_num_items: -1
      min_item_frequency: 1
    growing_strategy_local {
    categorical {
      cart {
    axis_aligned_split {
    internal {
      sorting_strategy: PRESORTED
    uplift {
      min_examples_in_treatment: 5
      split_score: KULLBACK_LEIBLER
  winner_take_all_inference: true
  compute_oob_performances: true
  compute_oob_variable_importances: false
  num_oob_variable_importances_permutations: 1
  bootstrap_training_dataset: true
  bootstrap_size_ratio: 1
  adapt_bootstrap_size_ratio_for_maximum_training_duration: false
  sampling_with_replacement: true

[INFO 24-04-20 11:17:36.9143 UTC] Deployment config:
cache_path: "/tmpfs/tmp/tmpx28adgyq/working_cache"
num_threads: 32
try_resume_training: true

[INFO 24-04-20 11:17:36.9145 UTC] Train model
[INFO 24-04-20 11:17:36.9152 UTC] Training random forest on 67349 example(s) and 1 feature(s).
[INFO 24-04-20 11:18:08.8767 UTC] Training of tree  1/30 (tree index:1) done accuracy:0.7412 logloss:9.32811
[INFO 24-04-20 11:18:19.2026 UTC] Training of tree  6/30 (tree index:27) done accuracy:0.775555 logloss:4.88012
[INFO 24-04-20 11:18:21.1285 UTC] Training of tree  16/30 (tree index:25) done accuracy:0.808699 logloss:1.679
[INFO 24-04-20 11:18:22.6848 UTC] Training of tree  26/30 (tree index:8) done accuracy:0.818557 logloss:0.904858
[INFO 24-04-20 11:18:24.0005 UTC] Training of tree  30/30 (tree index:6) done accuracy:0.821274 logloss:0.854486
[INFO 24-04-20 11:18:24.0013 UTC] Final OOB metrics: accuracy:0.821274 logloss:0.854486
[INFO 24-04-20 11:18:24.0104 UTC] Export model in log directory: /tmpfs/tmp/tmpx28adgyq with prefix da59c2f23fdb4012
[INFO 24-04-20 11:18:24.0388 UTC] Save model in resources
[INFO 24-04-20 11:18:24.0420 UTC] Model self evaluation:
Number of predictions (without weights): 67349
Number of predictions (with weights): 67349
Label: __LABEL

Accuracy: 0.821274  CI95[W][0.818828 0.8237]
LogLoss: : 0.854486
ErrorRate: : 0.178726

Default Accuracy: : 0.557826
Default LogLoss: : 0.686445
Default ErrorRate: : 0.442174

Confusion Table:
       1      2
1  19593  10187
2   1850  35719
Total: 67349

[INFO 24-04-20 11:18:24.0658 UTC] Loading model from path /tmpfs/tmp/tmpx28adgyq/model/ with prefix da59c2f23fdb4012
[INFO 24-04-20 11:18:24.3112 UTC] Model loaded with 30 root(s), 43180 node(s), and 1 input feature(s).
[INFO 24-04-20 11:18:24.3113 UTC] Engine "RandomForestGeneric" built
[INFO 24-04-20 11:18:24.3113 UTC] Use fast generic engine
Model trained in 0:00:47.515581
Compiling model...
Model compiled.
<tf_keras.src.callbacks.History at 0x7ff6107c01c0>

In the previous logs, note that sentence is a CATEGORICAL_SET feature.

The model is evaluated as usual:

evaluation = model_1.evaluate(test_ds)

print(f"BinaryCrossentropyloss: {evaluation[0]}")
print(f"Accuracy: {evaluation[1]}")
9/9 [==============================] - 4s 4ms/step - loss: 0.0000e+00 - accuracy: 0.7638
BinaryCrossentropyloss: 0.0
Accuracy: 0.7637614607810974

The training logs looks are follow:

import matplotlib.pyplot as plt

logs = model_1.make_inspector().training_logs()
plt.plot([log.num_trees for log in logs], [log.evaluation.accuracy for log in logs])
plt.xlabel("Number of trees")
plt.ylabel("Out-of-bag accuracy")


More trees would probably be beneficial (I am sure of it because I tried :p).

Use a pretrained text embedding

The previous example trained a Random Forest using raw text features. This example will use a pre-trained TF-Hub embedding to convert text features into a dense embedding, and then train a Random Forest on top of it. In this situation, the Random Forest will only "see" the numerical output of the embedding (i.e. it will not see the raw text).

In this experiment, will use the Universal-Sentence-Encoder. Different pre-trained embeddings might be suited for different types of text (e.g. different language, different task) but also for other type of structured features (e.g. images).

The embedding module can be applied in one of two places:

  1. During the dataset preparation.
  2. In the pre-processing stage of the model.

The second option is often preferable: Packaging the embedding in the model makes the model easier to use (and harder to misuse).

First install TF-Hub:

pip install --upgrade tensorflow-hub

Unlike before, you don't need to tokenize the text.

def prepare_dataset(example):
  label = (example["label"] + 1) // 2
  return {"sentence" : example["sentence"]}, label

train_ds = all_ds["train"].batch(100).map(prepare_dataset)
test_ds = all_ds["validation"].batch(100).map(prepare_dataset)
%set_cell_height 300

import tensorflow_hub as hub
# NNLM ( is also a good choice.
hub_url = ""
embedding = hub.KerasLayer(hub_url)

sentence = tf_keras.layers.Input(shape=(), name="sentence", dtype=tf.string)
embedded_sentence = embedding(sentence)

raw_inputs = {"sentence": sentence}
processed_inputs = {"embedded_sentence": embedded_sentence}
preprocessor = tf_keras.Model(inputs=raw_inputs, outputs=processed_inputs)

model_2 = tfdf.keras.RandomForestModel(
<IPython.core.display.Javascript object>
Warning: The `num_threads` constructor argument is not set and the number of CPU is os.cpu_count()=32 > 32. Setting num_threads to 32. Set num_threads manually to use more than 32 cpus.
WARNING:absl:The `num_threads` constructor argument is not set and the number of CPU is os.cpu_count()=32 > 32. Setting num_threads to 32. Set num_threads manually to use more than 32 cpus.
Use /tmpfs/tmp/tmpv_kuhy0b as temporary training directory
Reading training dataset...
Training dataset read in 0:00:24.071412. Found 67349 examples.
Training model...
[INFO 24-04-20 11:19:25.9064 UTC] Loading model from path /tmpfs/tmp/tmpv_kuhy0b/model/ with prefix 36a4a9d3f10743e4
Model trained in 0:00:13.926431
Compiling model...
[INFO 24-04-20 11:19:27.6042 UTC] Model loaded with 100 root(s), 565608 node(s), and 512 input feature(s).
[INFO 24-04-20 11:19:27.6044 UTC] Engine "RandomForestOptPred" built
[INFO 24-04-20 11:19:27.6045 UTC] Use fast generic engine
Model compiled.
<tf_keras.src.callbacks.History at 0x7ff4202c16d0>
evaluation = model_2.evaluate(test_ds)

print(f"BinaryCrossentropyloss: {evaluation[0]}")
print(f"Accuracy: {evaluation[1]}")
9/9 [==============================] - 2s 18ms/step - loss: 0.0000e+00 - accuracy: 0.7878
BinaryCrossentropyloss: 0.0
Accuracy: 0.7878440618515015

Note that categorical sets represent text differently from a dense embedding, so it may be useful to use both strategies jointly.

Train a decision tree and neural network together

The previous example used a pre-trained Neural Network (NN) to process the text features before passing them to the Random Forest. This example will train both the Neural Network and the Random Forest from scratch.

TF-DF's Decision Forests do not back-propagate gradients (although this is the subject of ongoing research). Therefore, the training happens in two stages:

  1. Train the neural-network as a standard classification task:
example → [Normalize] → [Neural Network*] → [classification head] → prediction
*: Training.
  1. Replace the Neural Network's head (the last layer and the soft-max) with a Random Forest. Train the Random Forest as usual:
example → [Normalize] → [Neural Network] → [Random Forest*] → prediction
*: Training.

Prepare the dataset

This example uses the Palmer's Penguins dataset. See the Beginner colab for details.

First, download the raw data:

wget -q -O /tmp/penguins.csv

Load a dataset into a Pandas Dataframe.

dataset_df = pd.read_csv("/tmp/penguins.csv")

# Display the first 3 examples.

Prepare the dataset for training.

label = "species"

# Replaces numerical NaN (representing missing values in Pandas Dataframe) with 0s.
# ...Neural Nets don't work well with numerical NaNs.
for col in dataset_df.columns:
  if dataset_df[col].dtype not in [str, object]:
    dataset_df[col] = dataset_df[col].fillna(0)
# Split the dataset into a training and testing dataset.

def split_dataset(dataset, test_ratio=0.30):
  """Splits a panda dataframe in two."""
  test_indices = np.random.rand(len(dataset)) < test_ratio
  return dataset[~test_indices], dataset[test_indices]

train_ds_pd, test_ds_pd = split_dataset(dataset_df)
print("{} examples in training, {} examples for testing.".format(
    len(train_ds_pd), len(test_ds_pd)))

# Convert the datasets into tensorflow datasets
train_ds = tfdf.keras.pd_dataframe_to_tf_dataset(train_ds_pd, label=label)
test_ds = tfdf.keras.pd_dataframe_to_tf_dataset(test_ds_pd, label=label)
248 examples in training, 96 examples for testing.

Build the models

Next create the neural network model using Keras' functional style.

To keep the example simple this model only uses two inputs.

input_1 = tf_keras.Input(shape=(1,), name="bill_length_mm", dtype="float")
input_2 = tf_keras.Input(shape=(1,), name="island", dtype="string")

nn_raw_inputs = [input_1, input_2]

Use preprocessing layers to convert the raw inputs to inputs appropriate for the neural network.

# Normalization.
Normalization = tf_keras.layers.Normalization
CategoryEncoding = tf_keras.layers.CategoryEncoding
StringLookup = tf_keras.layers.StringLookup

values = train_ds_pd["bill_length_mm"].values[:, tf.newaxis]
input_1_normalizer = Normalization()

values = train_ds_pd["island"].values
input_2_indexer = StringLookup(max_tokens=32)

input_2_onehot = CategoryEncoding(output_mode="binary", max_tokens=32)

normalized_input_1 = input_1_normalizer(input_1)
normalized_input_2 = input_2_onehot(input_2_indexer(input_2))

nn_processed_inputs = [normalized_input_1, normalized_input_2]
WARNING:tensorflow:max_tokens is deprecated, please use num_tokens instead.
WARNING:tensorflow:max_tokens is deprecated, please use num_tokens instead.

Build the body of the neural network:

y = tf_keras.layers.Concatenate()(nn_processed_inputs)
y = tf_keras.layers.Dense(16, activation=tf.nn.relu6)(y)
last_layer = tf_keras.layers.Dense(8, activation=tf.nn.relu, name="last")(y)

# "3" for the three label classes. If it were a binary classification, the
# output dim would be 1.
classification_output = tf_keras.layers.Dense(3)(y)

nn_model = tf_keras.models.Model(nn_raw_inputs, classification_output)

This nn_model directly produces classification logits.

Next create a decision forest model. This will operate on the high level features that the neural network extracts in the last layer before that classification head.

# To reduce the risk of mistakes, group both the decision forest and the
# neural network in a single keras model.
nn_without_head = tf_keras.models.Model(inputs=nn_model.inputs, outputs=last_layer)
df_and_nn_model = tfdf.keras.RandomForestModel(preprocessing=nn_without_head)
Warning: The `num_threads` constructor argument is not set and the number of CPU is os.cpu_count()=32 > 32. Setting num_threads to 32. Set num_threads manually to use more than 32 cpus.
WARNING:absl:The `num_threads` constructor argument is not set and the number of CPU is os.cpu_count()=32 > 32. Setting num_threads to 32. Set num_threads manually to use more than 32 cpus.
Use /tmpfs/tmp/tmpgsdeyzk5 as temporary training directory

Train and evaluate the models

The model will be trained in two stages. First train the neural network with its own classification head:

%set_cell_height 300

  metrics=["accuracy"]), validation_data=test_ds, epochs=10)
<IPython.core.display.Javascript object>
Epoch 1/10
/tmpfs/tmp/ UserWarning: Input dict contained keys ['bill_depth_mm', 'flipper_length_mm', 'body_mass_g', 'sex', 'year'] which did not match any model input. They will be ignored by the model.
  ag__.converted_call(ag__.ld(warnings).warn, (ag__.converted_call('Input dict contained keys {} which did not match any model input. They will be ignored by the model.'.format, ([ag__.ld(n) for n in ag__.converted_call(ag__.ld(tensors).keys, (), None, fscope) if ag__.ld(n) not in ag__.ld(ref_input_names)],), None, fscope),), dict(stacklevel=2), fscope)
WARNING: All log messages before absl::InitializeLog() is called are written to STDERR
I0000 00:00:1713611983.477059   22965] XLA service 0x7ff3c4155d00 initialized for platform CUDA (this does not guarantee that XLA will be used). Devices:
I0000 00:00:1713611983.477103   22965]   StreamExecutor device (0): Tesla T4, Compute Capability 7.5
I0000 00:00:1713611983.477109   22965]   StreamExecutor device (1): Tesla T4, Compute Capability 7.5
I0000 00:00:1713611983.477112   22965]   StreamExecutor device (2): Tesla T4, Compute Capability 7.5
I0000 00:00:1713611983.477115   22965]   StreamExecutor device (3): Tesla T4, Compute Capability 7.5
I0000 00:00:1713611983.604064   22965 device_compiler.h:188] Compiled cluster using XLA!  This line is logged at most once for the lifetime of the process.
1/1 [==============================] - 7s 7s/step - loss: 1.0737 - accuracy: 0.7137 - val_loss: 1.0569 - val_accuracy: 0.7500
Epoch 2/10
1/1 [==============================] - 0s 24ms/step - loss: 1.0696 - accuracy: 0.7177 - val_loss: 1.0529 - val_accuracy: 0.7500
Epoch 3/10
1/1 [==============================] - 0s 22ms/step - loss: 1.0655 - accuracy: 0.7177 - val_loss: 1.0489 - val_accuracy: 0.7500
Epoch 4/10
1/1 [==============================] - 0s 22ms/step - loss: 1.0614 - accuracy: 0.7218 - val_loss: 1.0450 - val_accuracy: 0.7500
Epoch 5/10
1/1 [==============================] - 0s 23ms/step - loss: 1.0574 - accuracy: 0.7258 - val_loss: 1.0410 - val_accuracy: 0.7500
Epoch 6/10
1/1 [==============================] - 0s 22ms/step - loss: 1.0533 - accuracy: 0.7298 - val_loss: 1.0371 - val_accuracy: 0.7708
Epoch 7/10
1/1 [==============================] - 0s 22ms/step - loss: 1.0494 - accuracy: 0.7339 - val_loss: 1.0332 - val_accuracy: 0.7708
Epoch 8/10
1/1 [==============================] - 0s 25ms/step - loss: 1.0454 - accuracy: 0.7379 - val_loss: 1.0293 - val_accuracy: 0.7708
Epoch 9/10
1/1 [==============================] - 0s 22ms/step - loss: 1.0415 - accuracy: 0.7419 - val_loss: 1.0254 - val_accuracy: 0.7812
Epoch 10/10
1/1 [==============================] - 0s 22ms/step - loss: 1.0376 - accuracy: 0.7460 - val_loss: 1.0217 - val_accuracy: 0.7812
Model: "model_1"
 Layer (type)                Output Shape                 Param #   Connected to                  
 island (InputLayer)         [(None, 1)]                  0         []                            
 bill_length_mm (InputLayer  [(None, 1)]                  0         []                            
 string_lookup (StringLooku  (None, 1)                    0         ['island[0][0]']              
 normalization (Normalizati  (None, 1)                    3         ['bill_length_mm[0][0]']      
 category_encoding (Categor  (None, 32)                   0         ['string_lookup[0][0]']       
 concatenate (Concatenate)   (None, 33)                   0         ['normalization[0][0]',       
 dense (Dense)               (None, 16)                   544       ['concatenate[0][0]']         
 dense_1 (Dense)             (None, 3)                    51        ['dense[0][0]']               
Total params: 598 (2.34 KB)
Trainable params: 595 (2.32 KB)
Non-trainable params: 3 (16.00 Byte)

The neural network layers are shared between the two models. So now that the neural network is trained the decision forest model will be fit to the trained output of the neural network layers:

%set_cell_height 300
<IPython.core.display.Javascript object>
Reading training dataset...
Training dataset read in 0:00:00.463558. Found 248 examples.
Training model...
Model trained in 0:00:00.043113
Compiling model...
[INFO 24-04-20 11:19:45.0975 UTC] Loading model from path /tmpfs/tmp/tmpgsdeyzk5/model/ with prefix ac3d07af419249e2
[INFO 24-04-20 11:19:45.1138 UTC] Model loaded with 300 root(s), 5640 node(s), and 8 input feature(s).
[INFO 24-04-20 11:19:45.1138 UTC] Engine "RandomForestGeneric" built
[INFO 24-04-20 11:19:45.1138 UTC] Use fast generic engine
Model compiled.
<tf_keras.src.callbacks.History at 0x7ff3fc7e2ac0>

Now evaluate the composed model:

print("Evaluation:", df_and_nn_model.evaluate(test_ds))
1/1 [==============================] - 0s 240ms/step - loss: 0.0000e+00 - accuracy: 0.9479
Evaluation: [0.0, 0.9479166865348816]

Compare it to the Neural Network alone:

print("Evaluation :", nn_model.evaluate(test_ds))
1/1 [==============================] - 0s 14ms/step - loss: 1.0217 - accuracy: 0.7812
Evaluation : [1.021651029586792, 0.78125]