Fast Style Transfer for Arbitrary Styles

View on Run in Google Colab View on GitHub Download notebook See TF Hub model

Based on the model code in magenta and the publication:

Exploring the structure of a real-time, arbitrary neural artistic stylization network. Golnaz Ghiasi, Honglak Lee, Manjunath Kudlur, Vincent Dumoulin, Jonathon Shlens, Proceedings of the British Machine Vision Conference (BMVC), 2017.


Let's start with importing TF2 and all relevant dependencies.

import functools
import os

from matplotlib import gridspec
import matplotlib.pylab as plt
import numpy as np
import tensorflow as tf
import tensorflow_hub as hub

print("TF Version: ", tf.__version__)
print("TF Hub version: ", hub.__version__)
print("Eager mode enabled: ", tf.executing_eagerly())
print("GPU available: ", tf.config.list_physical_devices('GPU'))
TF Version:  2.16.1
TF Hub version:  0.16.1
Eager mode enabled:  True
GPU available:  []
2024-03-10 11:57:42.713691: E external/local_xla/xla/stream_executor/cuda/] failed call to cuInit: CUDA_ERROR_NO_DEVICE: no CUDA-capable device is detected
# @title Define image loading and visualization functions  { display-mode: "form" }

def crop_center(image):
  """Returns a cropped square image."""
  shape = image.shape
  new_shape = min(shape[1], shape[2])
  offset_y = max(shape[1] - shape[2], 0) // 2
  offset_x = max(shape[2] - shape[1], 0) // 2
  image = tf.image.crop_to_bounding_box(
      image, offset_y, offset_x, new_shape, new_shape)
  return image

def load_image(image_url, image_size=(256, 256), preserve_aspect_ratio=True):
  """Loads and preprocesses images."""
  # Cache image file locally.
  image_path = tf.keras.utils.get_file(os.path.basename(image_url)[-128:], image_url)
  # Load and convert to float32 numpy array, add batch dimension, and normalize to range [0, 1].
  img =,
      channels=3, dtype=tf.float32)[tf.newaxis, ...]
  img = crop_center(img)
  img = tf.image.resize(img, image_size, preserve_aspect_ratio=True)
  return img

def show_n(images, titles=('',)):
  n = len(images)
  image_sizes = [image.shape[1] for image in images]
  w = (image_sizes[0] * 6) // 320
  plt.figure(figsize=(w * n, w))
  gs = gridspec.GridSpec(1, n, width_ratios=image_sizes)
  for i in range(n):
    plt.imshow(images[i][0], aspect='equal')
    plt.title(titles[i] if len(titles) > i else '')

Let's get as well some images to play with.

# @title Load example images  { display-mode: "form" }

content_image_url = ''  # @param {type:"string"}
style_image_url = ''  # @param {type:"string"}
output_image_size = 384  # @param {type:"integer"}

# The content image size can be arbitrary.
content_img_size = (output_image_size, output_image_size)
# The style prediction model was trained with image size 256 and it's the 
# recommended image size for the style image (though, other sizes work as 
# well but will lead to different results).
style_img_size = (256, 256)  # Recommended to keep it at 256.

content_image = load_image(content_image_url, content_img_size)
style_image = load_image(style_image_url, style_img_size)
style_image = tf.nn.avg_pool(style_image, ksize=[3,3], strides=[1,1], padding='SAME')
show_n([content_image, style_image], ['Content image', 'Style image'])
Downloading data from
71918/71918 ━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━ 0s 0us/step
Downloading data from
2684586/2684586 ━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━ 0s 0us/step


Import TF Hub module

# Load TF Hub module.

hub_handle = ''
hub_module = hub.load(hub_handle)

The signature of this hub module for image stylization is:

outputs = hub_module(content_image, style_image)
stylized_image = outputs[0]

Where content_image, style_image, and stylized_image are expected to be 4-D Tensors with shapes [batch_size, image_height, image_width, 3].

In the current example we provide only single images and therefore the batch dimension is 1, but one can use the same module to process more images at the same time.

The input and output values of the images should be in the range [0, 1].

The shapes of content and style image don't have to match. Output image shape is the same as the content image shape.

Demonstrate image stylization

# Stylize content image with given style image.
# This is pretty fast within a few milliseconds on a GPU.

outputs = hub_module(tf.constant(content_image), tf.constant(style_image))
stylized_image = outputs[0]
# Visualize input images and the generated stylized image.

show_n([content_image, style_image, stylized_image], titles=['Original content image', 'Style image', 'Stylized image'])


Let's try it on more images

# @title To Run: Load more images { display-mode: "form" }

content_urls = dict(
style_urls = dict(

content_image_size = 384
style_image_size = 256
content_images = {k: load_image(v, (content_image_size, content_image_size)) for k, v in content_urls.items()}
style_images = {k: load_image(v, (style_image_size, style_image_size)) for k, v in style_urls.items()}
style_images = {k: tf.nn.avg_pool(style_image, ksize=[3,3], strides=[1,1], padding='SAME') for k, style_image in style_images.items()}
Downloading data from
3170828/3170828 ━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━ 0s 0us/step
Downloading data from
406531/406531 ━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━ 0s 0us/step
Downloading data from
61306/61306 ━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━ 0s 0us/step
Downloading data from
195196/195196 ━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━ 0s 0us/step
Downloading data from
46930988/46930988 ━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━ 2s 0us/step
Downloading data from
397382/397382 ━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━ 0s 0us/step
Downloading data from
144340/144340 ━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━ 0s 0us/step
Downloading data from
11403121/11403121 ━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━ 0s 0us/step
Downloading data from
2905099/2905099 ━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━ 0s 0us/step
Downloading data from
1234199/1234199 ━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━ 0s 0us/step
Downloading data from
120288/120288 ━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━ 0s 0us/step
Downloading data from
131604/131604 ━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━ 0s 0us/step
Downloading data from
32390/32390 ━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━ 0s 0us/step
Downloading data from
1914618/1914618 ━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━ 0s 0us/step
Downloading data from
40620/40620 ━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━ 0s 0us/step
Downloading data from
66306/66306 ━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━ 0s 0us/step

Specify the main content image and the style you want to use.