마이그레이션 예: 미리 준비된 견적

TensorFlow.org에서 보기 Google Colab에서 실행 GitHub에서 소스 보기 노트북 다운로드

미리 만들어진(또는 미리 만들어진) 에스티메이터는 전통적으로 TensorFlow 1에서 다양한 일반적인 사용 사례에 대해 모델을 훈련하는 빠르고 쉬운 방법으로 사용되었습니다. TensorFlow 2는 Keras 모델을 통해 이들 중 다수에 대한 간단한 대략적인 대체물을 제공합니다. TensorFlow 2 대체 기능이 내장되어 있지 않은 미리 준비된 추정기의 경우에도 자체 대체 기능을 상당히 쉽게 구축할 수 있습니다.

이 가이드는 TensorFlow 1의 tf.estimator 파생 모델을 Keras를 사용하여 TF2로 마이그레이션하는 방법을 보여주기 위해 직접 동등물 및 사용자 지정 대체의 몇 가지 예를 안내합니다.

즉, 이 가이드에는 마이그레이션에 대한 예가 포함되어 있습니다.

모델 교육의 일반적인 선행 작업은 tf.feature_column 을 사용하여 TensorFlow 1 Estimator 모델에 대해 수행되는 기능 사전 처리입니다. TensorFlow 2의 기능 사전 처리에 대한 자세한 내용은 기능 열 마이그레이션에 대한 이 가이드를 참조하세요.

설정

몇 가지 필요한 TensorFlow 가져오기로 시작합니다.

pip install tensorflow_decision_forests
import keras
import pandas as pd
import tensorflow as tf
import tensorflow.compat.v1 as tf1
import tensorflow_decision_forests as tfdf
WARNING:root:TF Parameter Server distributed training not available (this is expected for the pre-build release).

표준 Titanic 데이터 세트에서 시연을 위해 몇 가지 간단한 데이터를 준비하고,

x_train = pd.read_csv('https://storage.googleapis.com/tf-datasets/titanic/train.csv')
x_eval = pd.read_csv('https://storage.googleapis.com/tf-datasets/titanic/eval.csv')
x_train['sex'].replace(('male', 'female'), (0, 1), inplace=True)
x_eval['sex'].replace(('male', 'female'), (0, 1), inplace=True)

x_train['alone'].replace(('n', 'y'), (0, 1), inplace=True)
x_eval['alone'].replace(('n', 'y'), (0, 1), inplace=True)

x_train['class'].replace(('First', 'Second', 'Third'), (1, 2, 3), inplace=True)
x_eval['class'].replace(('First', 'Second', 'Third'), (1, 2, 3), inplace=True)

x_train.drop(['embark_town', 'deck'], axis=1, inplace=True)
x_eval.drop(['embark_town', 'deck'], axis=1, inplace=True)

y_train = x_train.pop('survived')
y_eval = x_eval.pop('survived')
# Data setup for TensorFlow 1 with `tf.estimator`
def _input_fn():
  return tf1.data.Dataset.from_tensor_slices((dict(x_train), y_train)).batch(32)


def _eval_input_fn():
  return tf1.data.Dataset.from_tensor_slices((dict(x_eval), y_eval)).batch(32)


FEATURE_NAMES = [
    'age', 'fare', 'sex', 'n_siblings_spouses', 'parch', 'class', 'alone'
]

feature_columns = []
for fn in FEATURE_NAMES:
  feat_col = tf1.feature_column.numeric_column(fn, dtype=tf.float32)
  feature_columns.append(feat_col)

다양한 TensorFlow 1 Estimator 및 TensorFlow 2 Keras 모델과 함께 사용할 간단한 샘플 최적화 프로그램을 인스턴스화하는 방법을 만듭니다.

def create_sample_optimizer(tf_version):
  if tf_version == 'tf1':
    optimizer = lambda: tf.keras.optimizers.Ftrl(
        l1_regularization_strength=0.001,
        learning_rate=tf1.train.exponential_decay(
            learning_rate=0.1,
            global_step=tf1.train.get_global_step(),
            decay_steps=10000,
            decay_rate=0.9))
  elif tf_version == 'tf2':
    optimizer = tf.keras.optimizers.Ftrl(
        l1_regularization_strength=0.001,
        learning_rate=tf.keras.optimizers.schedules.ExponentialDecay(
            initial_learning_rate=0.1, decay_steps=10000, decay_rate=0.9))
  return optimizer

예 1: LinearEstimator에서 마이그레이션

TF1: LinearEstimator 사용

TensorFlow 1에서는 tf.estimator.LinearEstimator 를 사용하여 회귀 및 분류 문제에 대한 기준선 선형 모델을 생성할 수 있습니다.

linear_estimator = tf.estimator.LinearEstimator(
    head=tf.estimator.BinaryClassHead(),
    feature_columns=feature_columns,
    optimizer=create_sample_optimizer('tf1'))
INFO:tensorflow:Using default config.
INFO:tensorflow:Using default config.
WARNING:tensorflow:Using temporary folder as model directory: /tmp/tmpvoycvffz
WARNING:tensorflow:Using temporary folder as model directory: /tmp/tmpvoycvffz
INFO:tensorflow:Using config: {'_model_dir': '/tmp/tmpvoycvffz', '_tf_random_seed': None, '_save_summary_steps': 100, '_save_checkpoints_steps': None, '_save_checkpoints_secs': 600, '_session_config': allow_soft_placement: true
graph_options {
  rewrite_options {
    meta_optimizer_iterations: ONE
  }
}
, '_keep_checkpoint_max': 5, '_keep_checkpoint_every_n_hours': 10000, '_log_step_count_steps': 100, '_train_distribute': None, '_device_fn': None, '_protocol': None, '_eval_distribute': None, '_experimental_distribute': None, '_experimental_max_worker_delay_secs': None, '_session_creation_timeout_secs': 7200, '_checkpoint_save_graph_def': True, '_service': None, '_cluster_spec': ClusterSpec({}), '_task_type': 'worker', '_task_id': 0, '_global_id_in_cluster': 0, '_master': '', '_evaluation_master': '', '_is_chief': True, '_num_ps_replicas': 0, '_num_worker_replicas': 1}
INFO:tensorflow:Using config: {'_model_dir': '/tmp/tmpvoycvffz', '_tf_random_seed': None, '_save_summary_steps': 100, '_save_checkpoints_steps': None, '_save_checkpoints_secs': 600, '_session_config': allow_soft_placement: true
graph_options {
  rewrite_options {
    meta_optimizer_iterations: ONE
  }
}
, '_keep_checkpoint_max': 5, '_keep_checkpoint_every_n_hours': 10000, '_log_step_count_steps': 100, '_train_distribute': None, '_device_fn': None, '_protocol': None, '_eval_distribute': None, '_experimental_distribute': None, '_experimental_max_worker_delay_secs': None, '_session_creation_timeout_secs': 7200, '_checkpoint_save_graph_def': True, '_service': None, '_cluster_spec': ClusterSpec({}), '_task_type': 'worker', '_task_id': 0, '_global_id_in_cluster': 0, '_master': '', '_evaluation_master': '', '_is_chief': True, '_num_ps_replicas': 0, '_num_worker_replicas': 1}
linear_estimator.train(input_fn=_input_fn, steps=100)
linear_estimator.evaluate(input_fn=_eval_input_fn, steps=10)
WARNING:tensorflow:From /tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.7/site-packages/tensorflow/python/training/training_util.py:401: Variable.initialized_value (from tensorflow.python.ops.variables) is deprecated and will be removed in a future version.
Instructions for updating:
Use Variable.read_value. Variables in 2.X are initialized automatically both in eager and graph (inside tf.defun) contexts.
WARNING:tensorflow:From /tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.7/site-packages/tensorflow/python/training/training_util.py:401: Variable.initialized_value (from tensorflow.python.ops.variables) is deprecated and will be removed in a future version.
Instructions for updating:
Use Variable.read_value. Variables in 2.X are initialized automatically both in eager and graph (inside tf.defun) contexts.
INFO:tensorflow:Calling model_fn.
INFO:tensorflow:Calling model_fn.
/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.7/site-packages/tensorflow_estimator/python/estimator/canned/linear.py:1478: UserWarning: `layer.add_variable` is deprecated and will be removed in a future version. Please use `layer.add_weight` method instead.
  getter=tf.compat.v1.get_variable)
WARNING:tensorflow:From /tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.7/site-packages/keras/optimizer_v2/ftrl.py:149: calling Constant.__init__ (from tensorflow.python.ops.init_ops) with dtype is deprecated and will be removed in a future version.
Instructions for updating:
Call initializer instance with the dtype argument instead of passing it to the constructor
WARNING:tensorflow:From /tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.7/site-packages/keras/optimizer_v2/ftrl.py:149: calling Constant.__init__ (from tensorflow.python.ops.init_ops) with dtype is deprecated and will be removed in a future version.
Instructions for updating:
Call initializer instance with the dtype argument instead of passing it to the constructor
INFO:tensorflow:Done calling model_fn.
INFO:tensorflow:Done calling model_fn.
INFO:tensorflow:Create CheckpointSaverHook.
INFO:tensorflow:Create CheckpointSaverHook.
INFO:tensorflow:Graph was finalized.
INFO:tensorflow:Graph was finalized.
INFO:tensorflow:Running local_init_op.
INFO:tensorflow:Running local_init_op.
INFO:tensorflow:Done running local_init_op.
INFO:tensorflow:Done running local_init_op.
INFO:tensorflow:Calling checkpoint listeners before saving checkpoint 0...
INFO:tensorflow:Calling checkpoint listeners before saving checkpoint 0...
INFO:tensorflow:Saving checkpoints for 0 into /tmp/tmpvoycvffz/model.ckpt.
INFO:tensorflow:Saving checkpoints for 0 into /tmp/tmpvoycvffz/model.ckpt.
INFO:tensorflow:Calling checkpoint listeners after saving checkpoint 0...
INFO:tensorflow:Calling checkpoint listeners after saving checkpoint 0...
INFO:tensorflow:loss = 0.6931472, step = 0
INFO:tensorflow:loss = 0.6931472, step = 0
INFO:tensorflow:Calling checkpoint listeners before saving checkpoint 20...
INFO:tensorflow:Calling checkpoint listeners before saving checkpoint 20...
INFO:tensorflow:Saving checkpoints for 20 into /tmp/tmpvoycvffz/model.ckpt.
INFO:tensorflow:Saving checkpoints for 20 into /tmp/tmpvoycvffz/model.ckpt.
INFO:tensorflow:Calling checkpoint listeners after saving checkpoint 20...
INFO:tensorflow:Calling checkpoint listeners after saving checkpoint 20...
INFO:tensorflow:Loss for final step: 0.55268794.
INFO:tensorflow:Loss for final step: 0.55268794.
INFO:tensorflow:Calling model_fn.
INFO:tensorflow:Calling model_fn.
INFO:tensorflow:Done calling model_fn.
INFO:tensorflow:Done calling model_fn.
INFO:tensorflow:Starting evaluation at 2022-01-29T02:21:45
INFO:tensorflow:Starting evaluation at 2022-01-29T02:21:45
INFO:tensorflow:Graph was finalized.
INFO:tensorflow:Graph was finalized.
INFO:tensorflow:Restoring parameters from /tmp/tmpvoycvffz/model.ckpt-20
INFO:tensorflow:Restoring parameters from /tmp/tmpvoycvffz/model.ckpt-20
INFO:tensorflow:Running local_init_op.
INFO:tensorflow:Running local_init_op.
INFO:tensorflow:Done running local_init_op.
INFO:tensorflow:Done running local_init_op.
INFO:tensorflow:Evaluation [1/10]
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INFO:tensorflow:Evaluation [9/10]
INFO:tensorflow:Evaluation [9/10]
INFO:tensorflow:Inference Time : 0.50224s
INFO:tensorflow:Inference Time : 0.50224s
INFO:tensorflow:Finished evaluation at 2022-01-29-02:21:45
INFO:tensorflow:Finished evaluation at 2022-01-29-02:21:45
INFO:tensorflow:Saving dict for global step 20: accuracy = 0.70075756, accuracy_baseline = 0.625, auc = 0.75472915, auc_precision_recall = 0.65362054, average_loss = 0.5759378, global_step = 20, label/mean = 0.375, loss = 0.5704812, precision = 0.6388889, prediction/mean = 0.41331062, recall = 0.46464646
INFO:tensorflow:Saving dict for global step 20: accuracy = 0.70075756, accuracy_baseline = 0.625, auc = 0.75472915, auc_precision_recall = 0.65362054, average_loss = 0.5759378, global_step = 20, label/mean = 0.375, loss = 0.5704812, precision = 0.6388889, prediction/mean = 0.41331062, recall = 0.46464646
INFO:tensorflow:Saving 'checkpoint_path' summary for global step 20: /tmp/tmpvoycvffz/model.ckpt-20
INFO:tensorflow:Saving 'checkpoint_path' summary for global step 20: /tmp/tmpvoycvffz/model.ckpt-20
{'accuracy': 0.70075756,
 'accuracy_baseline': 0.625,
 'auc': 0.75472915,
 'auc_precision_recall': 0.65362054,
 'average_loss': 0.5759378,
 'label/mean': 0.375,
 'loss': 0.5704812,
 'precision': 0.6388889,
 'prediction/mean': 0.41331062,
 'recall': 0.46464646,
 'global_step': 20}

TF2: Keras LinearModel 사용

TensorFlow 2에서는 tf.estimator.LinearEstimator를 대체하는 tf.estimator.LinearEstimator tf.compat.v1.keras.models.LinearModel 인스턴스를 생성할 수 있습니다. tf.compat.v1.keras 경로는 호환성을 위해 미리 만들어진 모델이 존재함을 나타내는 데 사용됩니다.

linear_model = tf.compat.v1.keras.experimental.LinearModel()
linear_model.compile(loss='mse', optimizer=create_sample_optimizer('tf2'), metrics=['accuracy'])
linear_model.fit(x_train, y_train, epochs=10)
linear_model.evaluate(x_eval, y_eval, return_dict=True)
Epoch 1/10
20/20 [==============================] - 0s 2ms/step - loss: 2.8157 - accuracy: 0.6300
Epoch 2/10
20/20 [==============================] - 0s 2ms/step - loss: 0.2758 - accuracy: 0.6427
Epoch 3/10
20/20 [==============================] - 0s 2ms/step - loss: 0.2470 - accuracy: 0.6699
Epoch 4/10
20/20 [==============================] - 0s 2ms/step - loss: 0.1954 - accuracy: 0.7177
Epoch 5/10
20/20 [==============================] - 0s 2ms/step - loss: 0.1931 - accuracy: 0.7145
Epoch 6/10
20/20 [==============================] - 0s 2ms/step - loss: 0.1816 - accuracy: 0.7496
Epoch 7/10
20/20 [==============================] - 0s 2ms/step - loss: 0.1766 - accuracy: 0.7751
Epoch 8/10
20/20 [==============================] - 0s 2ms/step - loss: 0.2198 - accuracy: 0.7560
Epoch 9/10
20/20 [==============================] - 0s 2ms/step - loss: 0.1657 - accuracy: 0.7959
Epoch 10/10
20/20 [==============================] - 0s 2ms/step - loss: 0.1738 - accuracy: 0.7959
9/9 [==============================] - 0s 2ms/step - loss: 0.2278 - accuracy: 0.6780
{'loss': 0.22778697311878204, 'accuracy': 0.6780303120613098}

예 2: DNNEstimator에서 마이그레이션

TF1: DNNEstimator 사용

TensorFlow 1에서는 tf.estimator.DNNEstimator 를 사용하여 회귀 및 분류 문제에 대한 기본 DNN 모델을 생성할 수 있습니다.

dnn_estimator = tf.estimator.DNNEstimator(
    head=tf.estimator.BinaryClassHead(),
    feature_columns=feature_columns,
    hidden_units=[128],
    activation_fn=tf.nn.relu,
    optimizer=create_sample_optimizer('tf1'))
INFO:tensorflow:Using default config.
INFO:tensorflow:Using default config.
WARNING:tensorflow:Using temporary folder as model directory: /tmp/tmphckb8f81
WARNING:tensorflow:Using temporary folder as model directory: /tmp/tmphckb8f81
INFO:tensorflow:Using config: {'_model_dir': '/tmp/tmphckb8f81', '_tf_random_seed': None, '_save_summary_steps': 100, '_save_checkpoints_steps': None, '_save_checkpoints_secs': 600, '_session_config': allow_soft_placement: true
graph_options {
  rewrite_options {
    meta_optimizer_iterations: ONE
  }
}
, '_keep_checkpoint_max': 5, '_keep_checkpoint_every_n_hours': 10000, '_log_step_count_steps': 100, '_train_distribute': None, '_device_fn': None, '_protocol': None, '_eval_distribute': None, '_experimental_distribute': None, '_experimental_max_worker_delay_secs': None, '_session_creation_timeout_secs': 7200, '_checkpoint_save_graph_def': True, '_service': None, '_cluster_spec': ClusterSpec({}), '_task_type': 'worker', '_task_id': 0, '_global_id_in_cluster': 0, '_master': '', '_evaluation_master': '', '_is_chief': True, '_num_ps_replicas': 0, '_num_worker_replicas': 1}
INFO:tensorflow:Using config: {'_model_dir': '/tmp/tmphckb8f81', '_tf_random_seed': None, '_save_summary_steps': 100, '_save_checkpoints_steps': None, '_save_checkpoints_secs': 600, '_session_config': allow_soft_placement: true
graph_options {
  rewrite_options {
    meta_optimizer_iterations: ONE
  }
}
, '_keep_checkpoint_max': 5, '_keep_checkpoint_every_n_hours': 10000, '_log_step_count_steps': 100, '_train_distribute': None, '_device_fn': None, '_protocol': None, '_eval_distribute': None, '_experimental_distribute': None, '_experimental_max_worker_delay_secs': None, '_session_creation_timeout_secs': 7200, '_checkpoint_save_graph_def': True, '_service': None, '_cluster_spec': ClusterSpec({}), '_task_type': 'worker', '_task_id': 0, '_global_id_in_cluster': 0, '_master': '', '_evaluation_master': '', '_is_chief': True, '_num_ps_replicas': 0, '_num_worker_replicas': 1}
dnn_estimator.train(input_fn=_input_fn, steps=100)
dnn_estimator.evaluate(input_fn=_eval_input_fn, steps=10)
INFO:tensorflow:Calling model_fn.
INFO:tensorflow:Calling model_fn.
INFO:tensorflow:Done calling model_fn.
INFO:tensorflow:Done calling model_fn.
INFO:tensorflow:Create CheckpointSaverHook.
INFO:tensorflow:Create CheckpointSaverHook.
INFO:tensorflow:Graph was finalized.
INFO:tensorflow:Graph was finalized.
INFO:tensorflow:Running local_init_op.
INFO:tensorflow:Running local_init_op.
INFO:tensorflow:Done running local_init_op.
INFO:tensorflow:Done running local_init_op.
INFO:tensorflow:Calling checkpoint listeners before saving checkpoint 0...
INFO:tensorflow:Calling checkpoint listeners before saving checkpoint 0...
INFO:tensorflow:Saving checkpoints for 0 into /tmp/tmphckb8f81/model.ckpt.
INFO:tensorflow:Saving checkpoints for 0 into /tmp/tmphckb8f81/model.ckpt.
INFO:tensorflow:Calling checkpoint listeners after saving checkpoint 0...
INFO:tensorflow:Calling checkpoint listeners after saving checkpoint 0...
INFO:tensorflow:loss = 2.1811047, step = 0
INFO:tensorflow:loss = 2.1811047, step = 0
INFO:tensorflow:Calling checkpoint listeners before saving checkpoint 20...
INFO:tensorflow:Calling checkpoint listeners before saving checkpoint 20...
INFO:tensorflow:Saving checkpoints for 20 into /tmp/tmphckb8f81/model.ckpt.
INFO:tensorflow:Saving checkpoints for 20 into /tmp/tmphckb8f81/model.ckpt.
INFO:tensorflow:Calling checkpoint listeners after saving checkpoint 20...
INFO:tensorflow:Calling checkpoint listeners after saving checkpoint 20...
INFO:tensorflow:Loss for final step: 0.5881681.
INFO:tensorflow:Loss for final step: 0.5881681.
INFO:tensorflow:Calling model_fn.
INFO:tensorflow:Calling model_fn.
INFO:tensorflow:Done calling model_fn.
INFO:tensorflow:Done calling model_fn.
INFO:tensorflow:Starting evaluation at 2022-01-29T02:21:48
INFO:tensorflow:Starting evaluation at 2022-01-29T02:21:48
INFO:tensorflow:Graph was finalized.
INFO:tensorflow:Graph was finalized.
INFO:tensorflow:Restoring parameters from /tmp/tmphckb8f81/model.ckpt-20
INFO:tensorflow:Restoring parameters from /tmp/tmphckb8f81/model.ckpt-20
INFO:tensorflow:Running local_init_op.
INFO:tensorflow:Running local_init_op.
INFO:tensorflow:Done running local_init_op.
INFO:tensorflow:Done running local_init_op.
INFO:tensorflow:Evaluation [1/10]
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INFO:tensorflow:Evaluation [9/10]
INFO:tensorflow:Evaluation [9/10]
INFO:tensorflow:Inference Time : 0.47075s
INFO:tensorflow:Inference Time : 0.47075s
INFO:tensorflow:Finished evaluation at 2022-01-29-02:21:49
INFO:tensorflow:Finished evaluation at 2022-01-29-02:21:49
INFO:tensorflow:Saving dict for global step 20: accuracy = 0.7083333, accuracy_baseline = 0.625, auc = 0.70716256, auc_precision_recall = 0.6146256, average_loss = 0.60399944, global_step = 20, label/mean = 0.375, loss = 0.5986442, precision = 0.6486486, prediction/mean = 0.41256863, recall = 0.4848485
INFO:tensorflow:Saving dict for global step 20: accuracy = 0.7083333, accuracy_baseline = 0.625, auc = 0.70716256, auc_precision_recall = 0.6146256, average_loss = 0.60399944, global_step = 20, label/mean = 0.375, loss = 0.5986442, precision = 0.6486486, prediction/mean = 0.41256863, recall = 0.4848485
INFO:tensorflow:Saving 'checkpoint_path' summary for global step 20: /tmp/tmphckb8f81/model.ckpt-20
INFO:tensorflow:Saving 'checkpoint_path' summary for global step 20: /tmp/tmphckb8f81/model.ckpt-20
{'accuracy': 0.7083333,
 'accuracy_baseline': 0.625,
 'auc': 0.70716256,
 'auc_precision_recall': 0.6146256,
 'average_loss': 0.60399944,
 'label/mean': 0.375,
 'loss': 0.5986442,
 'precision': 0.6486486,
 'prediction/mean': 0.41256863,
 'recall': 0.4848485,
 'global_step': 20}

TF2: Keras를 사용하여 사용자 지정 DNN 모델 만들기

TensorFlow 2에서는 사용자 지정 DNN 모델을 유사한 수준의 사용자 지정 사용자 지정으로 tf.estimator.DNNEstimator 에 의해 생성된 모델을 대체할 수 있습니다(예: 이전 예에서 선택한 모델 최적화 프로그램을 사용자 지정하는 기능). .

유사한 워크플로를 사용하여 tf.estimator.experimental.RNNEstimator 를 Keras RNN 모델로 교체할 수 있습니다. Keras는 tf.keras.layers.RNN , tf.keras.layers.LSTMtf.keras.layers.GRU 를 통해 내장된 사용자 지정 가능한 여러 선택 사항을 제공합니다. 자세한 내용은 여기 를 참조하세요.

dnn_model = tf.keras.models.Sequential(
    [tf.keras.layers.Dense(128, activation='relu'),
     tf.keras.layers.Dense(1)])

dnn_model.compile(loss='mse', optimizer=create_sample_optimizer('tf2'), metrics=['accuracy'])
dnn_model.fit(x_train, y_train, epochs=10)
dnn_model.evaluate(x_eval, y_eval, return_dict=True)
Epoch 1/10
20/20 [==============================] - 0s 2ms/step - loss: 551.2993 - accuracy: 0.5997
Epoch 2/10
20/20 [==============================] - 0s 2ms/step - loss: 16.8562 - accuracy: 0.6427
Epoch 3/10
20/20 [==============================] - 0s 2ms/step - loss: 0.3048 - accuracy: 0.7161
Epoch 4/10
20/20 [==============================] - 0s 2ms/step - loss: 0.2475 - accuracy: 0.7416
Epoch 5/10
20/20 [==============================] - 0s 2ms/step - loss: 0.2334 - accuracy: 0.7512
Epoch 6/10
20/20 [==============================] - 0s 2ms/step - loss: 0.2200 - accuracy: 0.7416
Epoch 7/10
20/20 [==============================] - 0s 2ms/step - loss: 0.2012 - accuracy: 0.7656
Epoch 8/10
20/20 [==============================] - 0s 2ms/step - loss: 0.2025 - accuracy: 0.7624
Epoch 9/10
20/20 [==============================] - 0s 2ms/step - loss: 0.2185 - accuracy: 0.7703
Epoch 10/10
20/20 [==============================] - 0s 2ms/step - loss: 0.2046 - accuracy: 0.7687
9/9 [==============================] - 0s 2ms/step - loss: 0.2227 - accuracy: 0.6856
{'loss': 0.2227054387331009, 'accuracy': 0.685606062412262}

예 3: DNNLinearCombinedEstimator에서 마이그레이션

TF1: DNNLinearCombinedEstimator 사용

TensorFlow 1에서는 tf.estimator.DNNLinearCombinedEstimator 를 사용하여 선형 및 DNN 구성 요소 모두에 대한 사용자 지정 기능이 있는 회귀 및 분류 문제에 대한 기준 결합 모델을 생성할 수 있습니다.

optimizer = create_sample_optimizer('tf1')

combined_estimator = tf.estimator.DNNLinearCombinedEstimator(
    head=tf.estimator.BinaryClassHead(),
    # Wide settings
    linear_feature_columns=feature_columns,
    linear_optimizer=optimizer,
    # Deep settings
    dnn_feature_columns=feature_columns,
    dnn_hidden_units=[128],
    dnn_optimizer=optimizer)
INFO:tensorflow:Using default config.
INFO:tensorflow:Using default config.
WARNING:tensorflow:Using temporary folder as model directory: /tmp/tmpwl5e5eaq
WARNING:tensorflow:Using temporary folder as model directory: /tmp/tmpwl5e5eaq
INFO:tensorflow:Using config: {'_model_dir': '/tmp/tmpwl5e5eaq', '_tf_random_seed': None, '_save_summary_steps': 100, '_save_checkpoints_steps': None, '_save_checkpoints_secs': 600, '_session_config': allow_soft_placement: true
graph_options {
  rewrite_options {
    meta_optimizer_iterations: ONE
  }
}
, '_keep_checkpoint_max': 5, '_keep_checkpoint_every_n_hours': 10000, '_log_step_count_steps': 100, '_train_distribute': None, '_device_fn': None, '_protocol': None, '_eval_distribute': None, '_experimental_distribute': None, '_experimental_max_worker_delay_secs': None, '_session_creation_timeout_secs': 7200, '_checkpoint_save_graph_def': True, '_service': None, '_cluster_spec': ClusterSpec({}), '_task_type': 'worker', '_task_id': 0, '_global_id_in_cluster': 0, '_master': '', '_evaluation_master': '', '_is_chief': True, '_num_ps_replicas': 0, '_num_worker_replicas': 1}
INFO:tensorflow:Using config: {'_model_dir': '/tmp/tmpwl5e5eaq', '_tf_random_seed': None, '_save_summary_steps': 100, '_save_checkpoints_steps': None, '_save_checkpoints_secs': 600, '_session_config': allow_soft_placement: true
graph_options {
  rewrite_options {
    meta_optimizer_iterations: ONE
  }
}
, '_keep_checkpoint_max': 5, '_keep_checkpoint_every_n_hours': 10000, '_log_step_count_steps': 100, '_train_distribute': None, '_device_fn': None, '_protocol': None, '_eval_distribute': None, '_experimental_distribute': None, '_experimental_max_worker_delay_secs': None, '_session_creation_timeout_secs': 7200, '_checkpoint_save_graph_def': True, '_service': None, '_cluster_spec': ClusterSpec({}), '_task_type': 'worker', '_task_id': 0, '_global_id_in_cluster': 0, '_master': '', '_evaluation_master': '', '_is_chief': True, '_num_ps_replicas': 0, '_num_worker_replicas': 1}
combined_estimator.train(input_fn=_input_fn, steps=100)
combined_estimator.evaluate(input_fn=_eval_input_fn, steps=10)
INFO:tensorflow:Calling model_fn.
INFO:tensorflow:Calling model_fn.
/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.7/site-packages/tensorflow_estimator/python/estimator/canned/linear.py:1478: UserWarning: `layer.add_variable` is deprecated and will be removed in a future version. Please use `layer.add_weight` method instead.
  getter=tf.compat.v1.get_variable)
INFO:tensorflow:Done calling model_fn.
INFO:tensorflow:Done calling model_fn.
INFO:tensorflow:Create CheckpointSaverHook.
INFO:tensorflow:Create CheckpointSaverHook.
INFO:tensorflow:Graph was finalized.
INFO:tensorflow:Graph was finalized.
INFO:tensorflow:Running local_init_op.
INFO:tensorflow:Running local_init_op.
INFO:tensorflow:Done running local_init_op.
INFO:tensorflow:Done running local_init_op.
INFO:tensorflow:Calling checkpoint listeners before saving checkpoint 0...
INFO:tensorflow:Calling checkpoint listeners before saving checkpoint 0...
INFO:tensorflow:Saving checkpoints for 0 into /tmp/tmpwl5e5eaq/model.ckpt.
INFO:tensorflow:Saving checkpoints for 0 into /tmp/tmpwl5e5eaq/model.ckpt.
INFO:tensorflow:Calling checkpoint listeners after saving checkpoint 0...
INFO:tensorflow:Calling checkpoint listeners after saving checkpoint 0...
INFO:tensorflow:loss = 2.5475807, step = 0
INFO:tensorflow:loss = 2.5475807, step = 0
INFO:tensorflow:Calling checkpoint listeners before saving checkpoint 20...
INFO:tensorflow:Calling checkpoint listeners before saving checkpoint 20...
INFO:tensorflow:Saving checkpoints for 20 into /tmp/tmpwl5e5eaq/model.ckpt.
INFO:tensorflow:Saving checkpoints for 20 into /tmp/tmpwl5e5eaq/model.ckpt.
INFO:tensorflow:Calling checkpoint listeners after saving checkpoint 20...
INFO:tensorflow:Calling checkpoint listeners after saving checkpoint 20...
INFO:tensorflow:Loss for final step: 0.58060575.
INFO:tensorflow:Loss for final step: 0.58060575.
INFO:tensorflow:Calling model_fn.
INFO:tensorflow:Calling model_fn.
INFO:tensorflow:Done calling model_fn.
INFO:tensorflow:Done calling model_fn.
INFO:tensorflow:Starting evaluation at 2022-01-29T02:21:53
INFO:tensorflow:Starting evaluation at 2022-01-29T02:21:53
INFO:tensorflow:Graph was finalized.
INFO:tensorflow:Graph was finalized.
INFO:tensorflow:Restoring parameters from /tmp/tmpwl5e5eaq/model.ckpt-20
INFO:tensorflow:Restoring parameters from /tmp/tmpwl5e5eaq/model.ckpt-20
INFO:tensorflow:Running local_init_op.
INFO:tensorflow:Running local_init_op.
INFO:tensorflow:Done running local_init_op.
INFO:tensorflow:Done running local_init_op.
INFO:tensorflow:Evaluation [1/10]
INFO:tensorflow:Evaluation [1/10]
INFO:tensorflow:Evaluation [2/10]
INFO:tensorflow:Evaluation [2/10]
INFO:tensorflow:Evaluation [3/10]
INFO:tensorflow:Evaluation [3/10]
INFO:tensorflow:Evaluation [4/10]
INFO:tensorflow:Evaluation [4/10]
INFO:tensorflow:Evaluation [5/10]
INFO:tensorflow:Evaluation [5/10]
INFO:tensorflow:Evaluation [6/10]
INFO:tensorflow:Evaluation [6/10]
INFO:tensorflow:Evaluation [7/10]
INFO:tensorflow:Evaluation [7/10]
INFO:tensorflow:Evaluation [8/10]
INFO:tensorflow:Evaluation [8/10]
INFO:tensorflow:Evaluation [9/10]
INFO:tensorflow:Evaluation [9/10]
INFO:tensorflow:Inference Time : 0.54029s
INFO:tensorflow:Inference Time : 0.54029s
INFO:tensorflow:Finished evaluation at 2022-01-29-02:21:53
INFO:tensorflow:Finished evaluation at 2022-01-29-02:21:53
INFO:tensorflow:Saving dict for global step 20: accuracy = 0.6931818, accuracy_baseline = 0.625, auc = 0.73532283, auc_precision_recall = 0.630229, average_loss = 0.65179086, global_step = 20, label/mean = 0.375, loss = 0.63768697, precision = 0.60714287, prediction/mean = 0.4162652, recall = 0.5151515
INFO:tensorflow:Saving dict for global step 20: accuracy = 0.6931818, accuracy_baseline = 0.625, auc = 0.73532283, auc_precision_recall = 0.630229, average_loss = 0.65179086, global_step = 20, label/mean = 0.375, loss = 0.63768697, precision = 0.60714287, prediction/mean = 0.4162652, recall = 0.5151515
INFO:tensorflow:Saving 'checkpoint_path' summary for global step 20: /tmp/tmpwl5e5eaq/model.ckpt-20
INFO:tensorflow:Saving 'checkpoint_path' summary for global step 20: /tmp/tmpwl5e5eaq/model.ckpt-20
{'accuracy': 0.6931818,
 'accuracy_baseline': 0.625,
 'auc': 0.73532283,
 'auc_precision_recall': 0.630229,
 'average_loss': 0.65179086,
 'label/mean': 0.375,
 'loss': 0.63768697,
 'precision': 0.60714287,
 'prediction/mean': 0.4162652,
 'recall': 0.5151515,
 'global_step': 20}

TF2: Keras WideDeepModel 사용

tf.compat.v1.keras.models.WideDeepModel 2 tf.estimator.DNNLinearCombinedEstimator 유사한 수준의 사용자 지정 사용자 지정(예: 이전 예, 선택한 모델 최적화 프로그램을 사용자 정의하는 기능).

WideDeepModel 은 구성 LinearModel 및 사용자 정의 DNN 모델을 기반으로 구성되며, 둘 다 앞의 두 예에서 논의되었습니다. 원하는 경우 기본 제공 Keras LinearModel 대신 사용자 정의 선형 모델을 사용할 수도 있습니다.

미리 준비된 추정기 대신 자신만의 모델 을 만들고 keras.Sequential 모델을 만드는 방법을 확인하세요. 맞춤형 교육 및 최적화 프로그램에 대한 자세한 내용은 이 가이드 를 참조하십시오.

# Create LinearModel and DNN Model as in Examples 1 and 2
optimizer = create_sample_optimizer('tf2')

linear_model = tf.compat.v1.keras.experimental.LinearModel()
linear_model.compile(loss='mse', optimizer=optimizer, metrics=['accuracy'])
linear_model.fit(x_train, y_train, epochs=10, verbose=0)

dnn_model = tf.keras.models.Sequential(
    [tf.keras.layers.Dense(128, activation='relu'),
     tf.keras.layers.Dense(1)])
dnn_model.compile(loss='mse', optimizer=optimizer, metrics=['accuracy'])
combined_model = tf.compat.v1.keras.experimental.WideDeepModel(linear_model,
                                                               dnn_model)
combined_model.compile(
    optimizer=[optimizer, optimizer], loss='mse', metrics=['accuracy'])
combined_model.fit([x_train, x_train], y_train, epochs=10)
combined_model.evaluate(x_eval, y_eval, return_dict=True)
Epoch 1/10
20/20 [==============================] - 0s 2ms/step - loss: 1118.0448 - accuracy: 0.6715
Epoch 2/10
20/20 [==============================] - 0s 2ms/step - loss: 0.5682 - accuracy: 0.7305
Epoch 3/10
20/20 [==============================] - 0s 2ms/step - loss: 0.2719 - accuracy: 0.7671
Epoch 4/10
20/20 [==============================] - 0s 2ms/step - loss: 0.2032 - accuracy: 0.7831
Epoch 5/10
20/20 [==============================] - 0s 2ms/step - loss: 0.1911 - accuracy: 0.7783
Epoch 6/10
20/20 [==============================] - 0s 2ms/step - loss: 0.1895 - accuracy: 0.7863
Epoch 7/10
20/20 [==============================] - 0s 2ms/step - loss: 0.1882 - accuracy: 0.7863
Epoch 8/10
20/20 [==============================] - 0s 2ms/step - loss: 0.1717 - accuracy: 0.7974
Epoch 9/10
20/20 [==============================] - 0s 2ms/step - loss: 0.1701 - accuracy: 0.7927
Epoch 10/10
20/20 [==============================] - 0s 2ms/step - loss: 0.1684 - accuracy: 0.7990
9/9 [==============================] - 0s 2ms/step - loss: 0.1930 - accuracy: 0.7424
{'loss': 0.19299836456775665, 'accuracy': 0.7424242496490479}

예 4: BoostedTreesEstimator에서 마이그레이션

TF1: BoostedTreesEstimator 사용

TensorFlow 1에서는 tf.estimator.BoostedTreesEstimator 를 사용하여 회귀 및 분류 문제에 대한 결정 트리의 앙상블을 사용하여 기준 Gradient Boosting 모델을 생성하는 기준선을 생성할 수 있습니다. 이 기능은 더 이상 TensorFlow 2에 포함되지 않습니다.

bt_estimator = tf1.estimator.BoostedTreesEstimator(
    head=tf.estimator.BinaryClassHead(),
    n_batches_per_layer=1,
    max_depth=10,
    n_trees=1000,
    feature_columns=feature_columns)
bt_estimator.train(input_fn=_input_fn, steps=1000)
bt_estimator.evaluate(input_fn=_eval_input_fn, steps=100)

TF2: TensorFlow 결정 포리스트 사용

TensorFlow 2에서 tf.estimator.BoostedTreesEstimator 에 의해 생성된 모델에 대한 가장 가까운 사전 패키징된 대체는 tfdf.keras.GradientBoostedTreesModel 을 사용하여 생성된 것입니다. 순서대로 전임자들에 의해 만들어졌습니다.

GradientBoostedTreesModel 은 기본 수심 제약에서 조기 정지 조건에 이르기까지 모든 것을 지정할 수 있도록 더 많은 사용자 지정 옵션을 제공합니다. GradientBoostedTreesModel 속성에 대한 자세한 내용은 여기 를 참조하세요.

gbt_model = tfdf.keras.GradientBoostedTreesModel(
    task=tfdf.keras.Task.CLASSIFICATION)
gbt_model.compile(metrics=['mse', 'accuracy'])
Use /tmp/tmpbr1acn2_ as temporary training directory
train_df, eval_df = x_train.copy(), x_eval.copy()
train_df['survived'], eval_df['survived'] = y_train, y_eval

train_dataset = tfdf.keras.pd_dataframe_to_tf_dataset(train_df, label='survived')
eval_dataset = tfdf.keras.pd_dataframe_to_tf_dataset(eval_df, label='survived')

gbt_model.fit(train_dataset)
gbt_model.evaluate(eval_dataset, return_dict=True)
Starting reading the dataset
/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.7/site-packages/tensorflow_decision_forests/keras/core.py:2036: FutureWarning: In a future version of pandas all arguments of DataFrame.drop except for the argument 'labels' will be keyword-only
  features_dataframe = dataframe.drop(label, 1)
1/1 [==============================] - ETA: 0s
Dataset read in 0:00:03.161776
Training model
Model trained in 0:00:00.102649
Compiling model
1/1 [==============================] - 3s 3s/step
[INFO kernel.cc:1153] Loading model from path
[INFO abstract_model.cc:1063] Engine "GradientBoostedTreesQuickScorerExtended" built
[INFO kernel.cc:1001] Use fast generic engine
WARNING:tensorflow:AutoGraph could not transform <function simple_ml_inference_op_with_handle at 0x7f95e9db4e60> and will run it as-is.
Please report this to the TensorFlow team. When filing the bug, set the verbosity to 10 (on Linux, `export AUTOGRAPH_VERBOSITY=10`) and attach the full output.
Cause: could not get source code
To silence this warning, decorate the function with @tf.autograph.experimental.do_not_convert
WARNING:tensorflow:AutoGraph could not transform <function simple_ml_inference_op_with_handle at 0x7f95e9db4e60> and will run it as-is.
Please report this to the TensorFlow team. When filing the bug, set the verbosity to 10 (on Linux, `export AUTOGRAPH_VERBOSITY=10`) and attach the full output.
Cause: could not get source code
To silence this warning, decorate the function with @tf.autograph.experimental.do_not_convert
WARNING: AutoGraph could not transform <function simple_ml_inference_op_with_handle at 0x7f95e9db4e60> and will run it as-is.
Please report this to the TensorFlow team. When filing the bug, set the verbosity to 10 (on Linux, `export AUTOGRAPH_VERBOSITY=10`) and attach the full output.
Cause: could not get source code
To silence this warning, decorate the function with @tf.autograph.experimental.do_not_convert
1/1 [==============================] - 0s 388ms/step - loss: 0.0000e+00 - mse: 0.1308 - accuracy: 0.8144
{'loss': 0.0, 'mse': 0.13076548278331757, 'accuracy': 0.814393937587738}

TensorFlow 2에는 tf.estimator.BoostedTreesEstimator - tfdf.keras.RandomForestModel 에 의해 생성된 모델을 대체할 수 있는 또 다른 TFDF가 있습니다. RandomForestModel 은 각각 입력 훈련 데이터 세트의 무작위 하위 집합에 대해 훈련된 심층 의사 결정 트리의 투표 모집단으로 구성된 강력한 과적합 방지 학습기를 생성합니다.

RandomForestModelGradientBoostedTreesModel 은 유사하게 광범위한 수준의 사용자 정의를 제공합니다. 이들 중에서 선택하는 것은 문제에 따라 다르며 작업 또는 응용 프로그램에 따라 다릅니다.

RandomForestModelGradientBoostedTreesModel 속성에 대한 자세한 내용은 API 문서를 확인하십시오.

rf_model = tfdf.keras.RandomForestModel(
    task=tfdf.keras.Task.CLASSIFICATION)
rf_model.compile(metrics=['mse', 'accuracy'])
Use /tmp/tmpluh2ebcj as temporary training directory
rf_model.fit(train_dataset)
rf_model.evaluate(eval_dataset, return_dict=True)
Starting reading the dataset
1/1 [==============================] - ETA: 0s
Dataset read in 0:00:00.094262
Training model
Model trained in 0:00:00.083656
Compiling model
1/1 [==============================] - 0s 260ms/step
[INFO kernel.cc:1153] Loading model from path
[INFO kernel.cc:1001] Use fast generic engine
1/1 [==============================] - 0s 123ms/step - loss: 0.0000e+00 - mse: 0.1270 - accuracy: 0.8636
{'loss': 0.0, 'mse': 0.12698587775230408, 'accuracy': 0.8636363744735718}