• Description:

This is a dataset for classifying citation intents in academic papers. The main citation intent label for each Json object is specified with the label key while the citation context is specified in with a context key. Example:

 'string': 'In chacma baboons, male-infant relationships can be linked to both
    formation of friendships and paternity success [30,31].'
 'sectionName': 'Introduction',
 'label': 'background',
 'citingPaperId': '7a6b2d4b405439',
 'citedPaperId': '9d1abadc55b5e0',

You may obtain the full information about the paper using the provided paper ids with the Semantic Scholar API (

The labels are: Method, Background, Result

Split Examples
'test' 1,859
'train' 8,194
'validation' 916
  • Feature structure:
    'citeEnd': int64,
    'citeStart': int64,
    'citedPaperId': Text(shape=(), dtype=string),
    'citingPaperId': Text(shape=(), dtype=string),
    'excerpt_index': int32,
    'id': Text(shape=(), dtype=string),
    'isKeyCitation': bool,
    'label': ClassLabel(shape=(), dtype=int64, num_classes=3),
    'label2': ClassLabel(shape=(), dtype=int64, num_classes=4),
    'label2_confidence': float32,
    'label_confidence': float32,
    'sectionName': Text(shape=(), dtype=string),
    'source': ClassLabel(shape=(), dtype=int64, num_classes=7),
    'string': Text(shape=(), dtype=string),
  • Feature documentation:
Feature Class Shape Dtype Description
citeEnd Tensor int64
citeStart Tensor int64
citedPaperId Text string
citingPaperId Text string
excerpt_index Tensor int32
id Text string
isKeyCitation Tensor bool
label ClassLabel int64
label2 ClassLabel int64
label2_confidence Tensor float32
label_confidence Tensor float32
sectionName Text string
source ClassLabel int64
string Text string
  • Citation:
  author={Arman Cohan and Waleed Ammar and Madeleine Van Zuylen and Field Cady},
  title={Structural Scaffolds for Citation Intent Classification in Scientific Publications},