tf.compat.v1.distributions.DirichletMultinomial

Dirichlet-Multinomial compound distribution.

Inherits From: Distribution

The Dirichlet-Multinomial distribution is parameterized by a (batch of) length-K concentration vectors (K > 1) and a total_count number of trials, i.e., the number of trials per draw from the DirichletMultinomial. It is defined over a (batch of) length-K vector counts such that tf.reduce_sum(counts, -1) = total_count. The Dirichlet-Multinomial is identically the Beta-Binomial distribution when K = 2.

Mathematical Details

The Dirichlet-Multinomial is a distribution over K-class counts, i.e., a length-K vector of non-negative integer counts = n = [n_0, ..., n_{K-1}].

The probability mass function (pmf) is,

pmf(n; alpha, N) = Beta(alpha + n) / (prod_j n_j!) / Z
Z = Beta(alpha) / N!

where:

  • concentration = alpha = [alpha_0, ..., alpha_{K-1}], alpha_j > 0,
  • total_count = N, N a positive integer,
  • N! is N factorial, and,
  • Beta(x) = prod_j Gamma(x_j) / Gamma(sum_j x_j) is the multivariate beta function, and,
  • Gamma is the gamma function.

Dirichlet-Multinomial is a compound distribution, i.e., its samples are generated as follows.

  1. Choose class probabilities: probs = [p_0,...,p_{K-1}] ~ Dir(concentration)
  2. Draw integers: counts = [n_0,...,n_{K-1}] ~ Multinomial(total_count, probs)

The last concentration dimension parametrizes a single Dirichlet-Multinomial distribution. When calling distribution functions (e.g., dist.prob(counts)), concentration, total_count and counts are broadcast to the same shape. The last dimension of counts corresponds single Dirichlet-Multinomial distributions.

Distribution parameters are automatically broadcast in all functions; see examples for details.

Pitfalls

The number of classes, K, must not exceed:

  • the largest integer representable by self.dtype, i.e., 2**(mantissa_bits+1) (IEE754),
  • the maximum Tensor index, i.e., 2**31-1.

In other words,

K <= min(2**31-1, {
  tf.float16: 2**11,
  tf.float32: 2**24,
  tf.float64: 2**53 }[param.dtype])

Examples

alpha = [1., 2., 3.]
n = 2.
dist = DirichletMultinomial(n, alpha)

Creates a 3-class distribution, with the 3rd class is most likely to be drawn. The distribution functions can be evaluated on counts.

# counts same shape as alpha.
counts = [0., 0., 2.]
dist.prob(counts)  # Shape []

# alpha will be broadcast to [[1., 2., 3.], [1., 2., 3.]] to match counts.
counts = [[1., 1., 0.], [1., 0., 1.]]
dist.prob(counts)  # Shape [2]

# alpha will be broadcast to shape [5, 7, 3] to match counts.
counts = [[...]]  # Shape [5, 7, 3]
dist.prob(counts)  # Shape [5, 7]

Creates a 2-batch of 3-class distributions.

alpha = [[1., 2., 3.], [4., 5., 6.]]  # Shape [2, 3]
n = [3., 3.]
dist = DirichletMultinomial(n, alpha)

# counts will be broadcast to [[2., 1., 0.], [2., 1., 0.]] to match alpha.
counts = [2., 1., 0.]
dist.prob(counts)  # Shape [2]

total_count Non-negative floating point tensor, whose dtype is the same as concentration. The shape is broadcastable to [N1,..., Nm] with m >= 0. Defines this as a batch of N1 x ... x Nm different Dirichlet multinomial distributions. Its components should be equal to integer values.
concentration Positive floating point tensor, whose dtype is the same as n with shape broadcastable to [N1,..., Nm, K] m >= 0. Defines this as a batch of N1 x ... x Nm different K class Dirichlet multinomial distributions.
validate_args Python bool, default False. When True distribution parameters are checked for validity despite possibly degrading runtime performance. When False invalid inputs may silently render incorrect outputs.
allow_nan_stats Python bool, default True. When True, statistics (e.g., mean, mode, variance) use the value "NaN" to indicate the result is undefined. When False, an exception is raised if one or more of the statistic's batch members are undefined.
name Python str name prefixed to Ops created by this class.

allow_nan_stats Python bool describing behavior when a stat is undefined.

Stats return +/- infinity when it makes sense. E.g., the variance of a Cauchy distribution is infinity. However, sometimes the statistic is undefined, e.g., if a distribution's pdf does not achieve a maximum within the support of the distribution, the mode is undefined. If the mean is undefined, then by definition the variance is undefined. E.g. the mean for Student's T for df = 1 is undefined (no clear way to say it is either + or - infinity), so the variance = E[(X - mean)**2] is also undefined.

batch_shape Shape of a single sample from a single event index as a TensorShape.

May be partially defined or unknown.

The batch dimensions are indexes into independent, non-identical parameterizations of this distribution.

concentration Concentration parameter; expected prior counts for that coordinate.
dtype The DType of Tensors handled by this Distribution.
event_shape Shape of a single sample from a single batch as a TensorShape.

May be partially defined or unknown.

name Name prepended to all ops created by this Distribution.
parameters Dictionary of parameters used to instantiate this Distribution.
reparameterization_type Describes how samples from the distribution are reparameterized.

Currently this is one of the static instances distributions.FULLY_REPARAMETERIZED or distributions.NOT_REPARAMETERIZED.

total_concentration Sum of last dim of concentration parameter.
total_count Number of trials used to construct a sample.
validate_args Python bool indicating possibly expensive checks are enabled.

Methods

batch_shape_tensor

View source

Shape of a single sample from a single event index as a 1-D Tensor.

The batch dimensions are indexes into independent, non-identical parameterizations of this distribution.

Args
name name to give to the op

Returns
batch_shape Tensor.

cdf

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Cumulative distribution function.

Given random variable X, the cumulative distribution function cdf is:

cdf(x) := P[X <= x]

Args
value float or double Tensor.
name Python str prepended to names of ops created by this function.

Returns
cdf a Tensor of shape sample_shape(x) + self.batch_shape with values of type self.dtype.

copy

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Creates a deep copy of the distribution.

Args
**override_parameters_kwargs String/value dictionary of initialization arguments to override with new values.

Returns
distribution A new instance of type(self) initialized from the union of self.parameters and override_parameters_kwargs, i.e., dict(self.parameters, **override_parameters_kwargs).

covariance

View source

Covariance.

Covariance is (possibly) defined only for non-scalar-event distributions.

For