LinearOperator acting like a block circulant matrix.

This operator acts like a block circulant matrix A with shape [B1,...,Bb, N, N] for some b >= 0. The first b indices index a batch member. For every batch index (i1,...,ib), A[i1,...,ib, : :] is an N x N matrix. This matrix A is not materialized, but for purposes of broadcasting this shape will be relevant.

Description in terms of block circulant matrices

If A is block circulant, with block sizes N0, N1 (N0 * N1 = N): A has a block circulant structure, composed of N0 x N0 blocks, with each block an N1 x N1 circulant matrix.

For example, with W, X, Y, Z each circulant,

A = |W Z Y X|
    |X W Z Y|
    |Y X W Z|
    |Z Y X W|

Note that A itself will not in general be circulant.

Description in terms of the frequency spectrum

There is an equivalent description in terms of the [batch] spectrum H and Fourier transforms. Here we consider A.shape = [N, N] and ignore batch dimensions.

If H.shape = [N0, N1], (N0 * N1 = N): Loosely speaking, matrix multiplication is equal to the action of a Fourier multiplier: A u = IDFT2[ H DFT2[u] ]. Precisely speaking, given [N, R] matrix u, let DFT2[u] be the [N0, N1, R] Tensor defined by re-shaping u to [N0, N1, R] and taking a two dimensional DFT across the first two dimensions. Let